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21-4624.

History: L. 1990, ch. 99, § 4; L. 1994, ch. 252, § 4; L. 2004, ch. 102, § 3; L. 2010, ch. 135, § 10; Repealed, L. 2011, ch. 30, § 288; July 1.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"The Kansas Hard-Forty Law," The Honorable Tom Malone, 32 W.L.J. 147, 151 (1993).

"In Support of the Death Penalty," Carla J. Stovall and Margaret M. Henson, 4 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y, No. 1, 47, 48, 49 (1994).

"The Wizardry of Harmless Error: Brain, Heart, Courage Required When Reviewing Capital Sentences," Marla L. Mitchell, 4 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y, No. 1, 51, 52 (1994).

"Kansas' New Death Penalty Law: Will It Be Administered Fairly and Consistently?" Marianne Deagle, 34 W.L.J. 539, 546 (1995).

Survey of Recent Cases, 43 K.L.R. 995 (1995).

"The Problem of Implementing a Constitutional System of Capital Punishment," Stephen R. McAllister, 43 K.L.R. 1039, 1066, 1068 (1995).

"Putting an End to the Imposition of Death by Misperception and Misunderstanding: Simmons v. South Carolina," Janie Clark, 43 K.L.R. 1147, 1165, 1166, 1167 (1995).

"Federal Constitutional Requirements Governing Trial, Sentencing and Direct Review in Capital Cases," Stephen McAllister, 64 J.K.B.A. No. 8, 20, 27, 28, 30, 33 (1995).

"Criminal Procedure Review: Survey of Recent Cases," 44 K.L.R. 895 (1996).

Survey of Recent Cases, 45 K.L.R. 1396 (1997).

Survey of Recent Cases, 46 K.L.R. 925 (1998).

"Criminal Procedure Survey of Recent Cases," 50 K.L.R. 901 (2002).

"Preventive Detention of Sex Offenders," David J. Gottlieb, 50 K.L.R. 1031 (2002).

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Circumstances surrounding notice of intent to seek "hard 40," use of trial jury in sentencing proceeding, aggravating and mitigating circumstances examined. State v. Bailey, 251 Kan. 156, 167, 169, 175, 834 P.2d 342 (1992).

2. "Hard 40" sentencing instruction examined and approved. State v. Perez, 251 Kan. 736, 840 P.2d 1118 (1992).

3. Notice provisions herein are mandatory; failure of state to comply herewith requires sentence be vacated. State v. Deavers, 252 Kan. 149, 165, 843 P.2d 695 (1992).

4. Notice requirement set forth herein complied with under circumstances of case. State v. Walker, 252 Kan. 279, 301, 845 P.2d 1 (1993).

5. Mid-deliberation jury instruction on premeditation, relevance of manner in which unconscious victim murdered, sufficiency of evidence establishing aggravating circumstances, precedential value of death penalty cases examined. State v. Kingsley, 252 Kan. 761, 784, 786, 787, 794, 795, 851 P.2d 370 (1993).

6. When trial jury serves as jury in sentencing proceeding a second voir dire is not required. State v. Phillips, 252 Kan. 937, 947, 948, 850 P.2d 877 (1993).

7. A ruse entry to search defendant's home, warrantless arrest, search following arrest, and convictions as multiplicitous examined. State v. Johnson, 253 Kan. 356, 361, 856 P.2d 134 (1993).

8. Cited in denial of motion to modify sentence wherein court examines application of K.S.A. 21-4601, 21-4606 and 21-4603. State v. Mareska, 253 Kan. 431, 855 P.2d 954 (1993).

9. Aggravating factors sufficient to support recommendation of mandatory 40-year sentence examined. State v. Cromwell, 253 Kan. 495, 498, 856 P.2d 1299 (1993).

10. Pursuant to subsection (4), jury instructions must provide clear guidance for jurors in sentencing hearing. State v. Harmon, 254 Kan. 87, 97, 865 P.2d 1011 (1993).

11. Whether state timely filed written notice of intention to seek mandatory 40-year sentence examined. State v. Johnson, 255 Kan. 140, 141, 152, 155, 871 P.2d 1246 (1994).

12. Whether section precludes imposing consecutive maximum sentences after hard 40 is not imposed by jury examined. State v. Johnson, 255 Kan. 252, 261, 874 P.2d 623 (1994).

13. Whether section's requirement of notice at arraignment applies to invoking habitual criminal act (K.S.A. 21-4504) examined. State v. Timley, 255 Kan. 286, 306, 875 P.2d 242 (1994).

14. Whether sentence must be vacated because prosecution failed to properly file notice with trial judge examined. State v. Peckham, 255 Kan. 310, 314, 875 P.2d 257 (1994).

15. Whether court abused discretion by excusing juror without reasonable cause during hard 40 deliberations examined. State v. Stafford, 255 Kan. 807, 820, 823, 825, 878 P.2d 820 (1994).

16. Whether notice to seek hard 40 for defendant charged with felony murder is defective notice vacating sentence examined. State v. Richardson, 256 Kan. 69, 72, 75, 883 P.2d 1107 (1994).

17. Whether court's failure to advise jury that mitigating factors must be found beyond a reasonable doubt is error examined. State v. Reed, 256 Kan. 547, 562, 886 P.2d 854 (1994).

18. Whether lack of definitions of aggravating factors in hard 40 jury instruction rendered instruction unconstitutionally vague examined. State v. Duke, 256 Kan. 703, 715, 887 P.2d 110 (1994).

19. Whether written waiver of jury determination of hard 40 sentence is substitute for judicial inquiry examined. State v. Gideon, 257 Kan. 591, 596, 894 P.2d 850 (1995).

20. Defendant given proper notice by state of intention to seek hard 40 sentence; "at time of arraignment" construed. State v. Allison, 259 Kan. 25, 26, 31, 910 P.2d 817 (1996).

21. Defendant's hard 40 sentence vacated where state filed notice of intent day after arraignment. State v. Collier, 259 Kan. 346, 360, 913 P.2d 597 (1996).

22. Hard 40 sentence vacated where insufficient evidence of murder being committed in heinous, atrocious or cruel manner. State v. Cook, 259 Kan. 370, 396, 913 P.2d 97 (1996).

23. Defendant may not waive a jury trial and then insist on a jury for sentencing proceedings. State v. Williams, 259 Kan. 432, 436, 439, 443, 913 P.2d 587 (1996).

24. Notice of intent to seek the hard 40 sentence is complete when the judge has custody of the notice. State v. Harris, 259 Kan. 689, 706, 915 P.2d 758 (1996).

25. Services of hard 40 notice on defendant's attorney constitutes proper service. State v. Clemons, 261 Kan. 66, 71, 929 P.2d 749 (1996).

26. Prior crimes evidence properly admitted under K.S.A. 21-4637; aggravating and mitigating circumstances only a portion of evidence court may consider. State v. Moncla, 262 Kan. 58, 77, 936 P.2d 727 (1997).

27. Hung jury resulted in life sentence with eligibility for parole under prior statute; no adequate reason to dismiss juror. State v. Cheek, 262 Kan. 91, 107, 936 P.2d 749 (1997).

28. Evidence insufficient to establish aggravating circumstance that defendant subjected victims to extreme mental or physical cruelty before killing. State v. Follin, 263 Kan. 28, 47, 947 P.2d 8 (1997).

29. Trial court dismissal of motion to correct illegal sentence where prosecution complied with hard 40 notice requirements upheld. State v. Duke, 263 Kan. 193, 196, 946 P.2d 1375 (1997).

30. Failure by prosecution to timely file intent to seek hard 40 sentence constituted statutory noncompliance; sentence vacated. State v. White, 263 Kan. 283, 285, 309, 950 P.2d 1316 (1997).

31. Conviction for premeditated murder after charge was dismissed at preliminary examination for insufficient evidence reversed. State v. Thompkins, 263 Kan. 602, 612, 952 P.2d 1338 (1998).

32. Law of the case doctrine precluded review of second appeal concerning untimely notice to seek hard 40 sentence. State v. Collier, 263 Kan. 629, 630, 952 P.2d 1326 (1998).

33. Hard 40 sentence reversed; evidence insufficient, beyond reasonable doubt, that ax murder especially heinous, atrocious or cruel. State v. Spry, 266 Kan. 523, 531, 973 P.2d 783 (1999).

34. Convictions of capital murder, attempted rape and aggravated burglary are affirmed; constitutionality of Kansas capital murder statute affirmed; remanded for instructional error and separate sentencing procedure to determine whether defendant should be sentenced to death. State v. Kleypas, 272 Kan. 894, 40 P.3d 139 (2001).

35. Section considered unconstitutional on its face precluding imposition of death sentence. State v. Marsh, 278 Kan. 520, 542, 102 P.3d 445 (2004).

36. Section (e) not unconstitutional under the 8 th and 14 th Amendments to the United States Constitution. State v. Marsh, 282 Kan. 38, 144 P.3d 48 (2006).

37. Kansas death penalty statute constitutional. Kansas v. Marsh, 126 S. Ct. 2516, 2529 (2006).

38. Capital murder defendant is entitled to right of allocation before the sentencing court, not the sentencing jury. State v. Stallings, 284 Kan. 741, 742, 743, 163 P.3d 1232 (2007).

39. Cited; weighing equation upheld; unanimous agreement on mitigating circumstances unnecessary, jury instruction discussed; victim impact evidence admissible, sentencing. State v. Scott, 286 Kan. 54, 67, 87 to 89, 91, 92, 94, 97 to 107, 119, 183 P.3d 801 (2008).

40. The state was held to have complied with the notice requirements; summary denial of motion upheld. State v. Phillips, 298 Kan. 270, 311 P.3d 1123 (2013).

41. The evidentiary standard of all relevant evidence doctrine applicable for penalty phase of capital murder trial. State v. Carr, 300 Kan. 1, 284, 331 P.3d 544 (2014).

42. Statute provides greater protection to a death-eligible defendant than that required by the United States constitution, evidencing the legislature's intent that a capital penalty phase jury be instructed that mitigating circumstances need not be proven beyond a reasonable doubt. State v. Cheever, 304 Kan. 866, 883-85, 375 P.3d 979 (2016).

43. Requirement for state to file and serve written notice of intent to seek a hard 40 sentence was satisfied when state filed and served such notice before arraignment. State v. Jackson, 314 Kan. 178, 180, 496 P.3d 533 (2021).

44. An instruction on the burden of proof for mitigating circumstances is not required under state law. State v. Carr, 314 Kan. 615, 658, 502 P.3d 546 (2022).


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