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21-4618.

History: L. 1976, ch. 168, § 1; L. 1979, ch. 94, § 1; L. 1979, ch. 90, § 6; L. 1980, ch. 104, § 3; L. 1986, ch. 123, § 15; L. 1989, ch. 92, § 26; L. 1992, ch. 239, § 246; Repealed, L. 2010, ch. 136, § 307; July 1, 2011.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"Decisions, Decisions, Decisions," Terry L. Bullock, 17 W.L.J. 26, 28 (1977).

"Sentencing, Probation and Parole: Mandatory Minimum Terms for Certain Offenses Involving Firearms," Susan Ellmaker, 26 K.L.R. 277 (1978).

"Criminal Law: Constitutionality of Mandatory Minimum Sentence," 18 W.L.J. 166 (1978).

"Toward Certainty in Sentencing: Kansas Modifies the Indeterminate Sentence," Wayne K. Westblade, 18 W.L.J. 578, 589 (1979).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Criminal Law and Procedure," Keith G. Meyer, 27 K.L.R. 391, 395, 398 (1979).

"The New Kansas Expungement Laws," Keith Meyer, 2 J.K.T.L.A. No. 5, 22, 25 (1979).

"Researching Legislative Intent," Fritz Snyder, 51 J.K.B.A. 93, 96 (1982).

"A Comment on Kansas' New Drunk Driving Law," Joseph Brian Cox and Donald G. Strole, 51 J.K.B.A. 230, 234, 241 (1982).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Criminal Law," Robert A. Wason, 32 K.L.R. 395, 411, 412 (1984).

"Juvenile Law: Prosecuting Juveniles As Adults," The Hon. Tom Malone, 60 J.K.B.A. No. 5, 39, 42 (1991).

Survey of Recent Cases, 43 K.L.R. 1001 (1995).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Second or subsequent convictions of driving while intoxicated. 80-139.

Classification of crimes and penalties; effect of legislation providing for reduction of sentences. 84-57.

Driving while under influence of alcohol; amendatory sentencing; prosecutions instituted prior to effective date of amendments. 82-169.

Good time credits for sentences prior to July 1, 1982. 88-107.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. When section applies, defendant cannot be granted probation, nor can sentence be suspended. Esters v. State, 1 Kan. App. 2d 503, 504, 505, 506, 571 P.2d 32.

2. Under K.S.A. 21-4618 a defendant can be granted probation or sentence can be suspended (dissenting opinion). Esters v. State, 1 Kan. App. 2d 503, 506, 507, 571 P.2d 32.

3. Neither allegation in information nor specific finding that a firearm was used required in prosecution for aggravated burglary; conviction affirmed. State v. Kleber, 2 Kan. App. 2d 115, 119, 120, 575 P.2d 900.

4. Provisions of this section and K.S.A. 22-3717 requiring mandatory minimum sentences for crimes involving firearms not constitutionally impermissible. State v. Freeman, 223 Kan. 362, 363, 368, 370, 371, 574 P.2d 950.

5. Section does not apply to unarmed accomplice. State v. Stuart and Jones, 223 Kan. 600, 606, 607, 575 P.2d 559.

6. Section precludes probation or suspension of sentence; constitutional. State v. Stuart and Jones, 223 Kan. 600, 606, 607, 575 P.2d 559.

7. Sentence hereunder after conviction of aggravated robbery and other crimes affirmed. State v. Hatch and Smith, 223 Kan. 783, 785, 576 P.2d 687.

8. Whether firearm used in commission of offense (under Chapter 21, Article 34) to be determined by trial judge at time of sentencing. State v. Mullins, 223 Kan. 798, 799, 800, 577 P.2d 51.

9. Mandatory term of imprisonment under section held constitutional. State v. Nelson, 224 Kan. 95, 99, 577 P.2d 1178.

10. Whether defendant used firearm to be determined by trial judge; conviction affirmed. State v. McCarty, 224 Kan. 179, 578 P.2d 274.

11. Section is not unconstitutional on grounds urged. State v. DeCourcy, 224 Kan. 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 580 P.2d 81.

12. Construed; inapplicable to unarmed accomplice; proof required that firearm was instrumentality of crime. State v. DeCourcy, 224 Kan. 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 580 P.2d 81.

13. Section held constitutional in appeal of conviction of aggravated battery of a law enforcement officer (K.S.A. 21-3415). State v. Coleman, 224 Kan. 447, 452, 453, 580 P.2d 1329.

14. Section held constitutional; conviction for rape and other crimes affirmed. State v. Williams, 224 Kan. 468, 472, 580 P.2d 1341.

15. Use of firearm, loaded or unloaded, in committing offenses set out by article 24, chapter 21, requires mandatory sentence. State v. Deutscher, 225 Kan. 265, 266, 272, 273, 589 P.2d 620.

16. Section mentioned; defendant sentenced hereunder for crime of kidnapping. State v. Racey, 225 Kan. 404, 407, 590 P.2d 1064.

17. Minimum sentence for aggravated robbery imposed hereunder; trial court had no jurisdiction to modify under K.S.A. 21-4603. State v. Rios, 225 Kan. 613, 614, 592 P.2d 467.

18. Sufficient evidence to support court's finding that a firearm was used in perpetration of robbery; conviction of aggravated robbery affirmed. State v. Taylor, 225 Kan. 788, 795, 594 P.2d 211.

19. Section not unconstitutional. State v. Shuckahosee, 2 Kan. App. 2d 717, 718, 587 P.2d 923.

20. Sentence after conviction of involuntary manslaughter upheld. State v. Satterfield, 3 Kan. App. 2d 212, 213, 592 P.2d 135.

21. Words used by trial court in finding defendant used a firearm in an article 34 offense criticized; must specify that the defendant used a firearm. State v. Quick, 226 Kan. 308, 318, 319, 597 P.2d 1108.

22. Mentioned; conviction under K.S.A. 21-3427 reversed. State v. Jones, 226 Kan. 503, 504, 601 P.2d 1135.

23. Sentencing hereunder set aside and vacated; trial court erred in determining starter pistol to be a firearm. State v. Davis, 227 Kan. 174, 175, 177, 605 P.2d 572.

24. Cited; mandatory sentence without probation provision of municipal ordinance prohibiting prostitution not violative of constitutional protections. City of Junction City v. Griffin, 227 Kan. 332, 338, 339, 607 P.2d 459.

25. Defendant properly sentenced hereunder. State v. Bryant, 227 Kan. 385, 388, 607 P.2d 66.

26. Appeal from conviction for which sentence imposed hereunder; affirmed. State v. Ward, 227 Kan. 663, 664, 608 P.2d 1351.

27. Statute applicable to armed accomplice. State v. Thompson, 3 Kan. App. 2d 426, 427, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 596 P.2d 174.

28. K.S.A. 60-1507 motion denied; failure to advise of appeal right; lack of preliminary hearing transcript. Jones v. State, 3 Kan. App. 2d 578, 601 P.2d 1135.

29. Mentioned in affirming conviction under K.S.A. 21-4204; operable automatic pistol is firearm even though unloaded; location of firearm in car trunk is sufficient possession. State v. Boster, 4 Kan. App. 2d 355, 360, 606 P.2d 1035.

30. Use of a firearm need not be pleaded; evidence on issue may be taken at time of sentencing. State v. Johnson, 4 Kan. App. 2d 436, 437, 438, 608 P.2d 1020.

31. Waiver of juvenile court jurisdiction supported by substantial evidence upheld. In re White, 227 Kan. 881, 883, 610 P.2d 1114.

32. Whether defendant used firearm in commission of article 34 offense is matter to be determined by trial judge at sentencing. State v. Mack 228 Kan. 83, 85, 612 P.2d 158.

33. Whether defendant used firearm in commission of crime is matter to be determined by trial court at sentencing. State v. Ramsey, 228 Kan. 127, 132, 133, 134, 135, 612 P.2d 603.

34. Denial of probation and parole not constitutionally impermissible as denying equal protection of the law; not legislative usurpation of trial court's prerogatives. State v. McDaniel & Owens, 228 Kan. 172, 180, 183, 612 P.2d 1231.

35. Amendment effective July 1, 1979, not retroactive as to minor sentenced prior to change. State v. Purdy, 228 Kan. 264, 273, 274, 615 P.2d 131.

36. Amendment effective July 1, 1979 not retroactive as to minor sentenced prior to change. State v. Hutchinson, 228 Kan. 279, 286, 287, 288, 615 P.2d 138.

37. Crime involving use of firearm not controlled by any definition that may be found by reference to K.S.A. 21-4201. Poore v. State, 5 Kan. App. 2d 210, 213, 613 P.2d 963.

38. Where store employee saw what appeared to be handle of gun and defendant threatened to shoot, evidence supports finding firearm was used in robbery. State v. Harrison, 228 Kan. 558, 559, 561, 618 P.2d 827.

39. When robbery committed as minor but conviction occurred when defendant was 18, probation properly denied; statute not retroactive. State v. Dailey, 228 Kan. 566, 568, 569, 618 P.2d 833.

40. There was sufficient evidence that defendant used a firearm in perpetrating the crime; conviction affirmed. State v. Payton, 229 Kan. 106, 107, 109, 111, 622 P.2d 651.

41. In-court identification of defendant admissible even though there was alleged improper search, seizure and arrest; conviction affirmed. State v. Dickenson, 229 Kan. 152, 621 P.2d 1002.

42. Applied; conviction of aggravated assault requires imposition of sentence of imprisonment; suspension of sentence unlawful. State v. Johnson, 6 Kan. App. 2d 750, 753, 754, 755, 634 P.2d 1137 (1981).

43. Statute applicable only to article 34 crimes. Sutton v. State, 6 Kan. App. 2d 831, 832, 636 P.2d 187 (1981).

44. Imposition of mandatory minimum sentence hereunder required regardless of whether firearm operable or inoperable. State v. Pelzer, 230 Kan. 780, 781, 782, 640 P.2d 1261 (1982).

45. Under facts of case, withdrawal of plea of guilty pursuant to plea bargaining should have been permitted. State v. Harrison, 231 Kan. 489, 490, 492, 493, 646 P.2d 493 (1982).

46. Failure to require presentence investigation for defendant sentenced hereunder not prejudicial error. State v. Korbel, 231 Kan. 657, 659, 647 P.2d 1301 (1982).

47. Sentencing hereunder for attempted aggravated robbery improper; statute may be applied to multiple crimes arising from one incident. State v. Smith, 232 Kan. 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 655 P.2d 124 (1982).

48. Malfunctioning handgun used in commission of aggravated sodomy held to be firearm within meaning hereof. State v. Stellwagen, 232 Kan. 744, 750, 659 P.2d 167 (1983).

49. Air rifle not "firearm" for purpose of imposing mandatory sentence hereunder. State v. Johnson, 8 Kan. App. 2d 368, 369, 370, 657 P.2d 1139 (1983).

50. Statute allowing good time credits (K.S.A. 22-3717) prospective only from effective date (July 1, 1982). Mitchell v. Rayl, 8 Kan. App. 2d 690, 691, 665 P.2d 1117 (1983).

51. Cited in holding trial court abused discretion by excluding alibi witnesses without adequate inquiry and consideration of surrounding circumstances. State v. Douglas, 8 Kan. App. 2d 754, 667 P.2d 898 (1983).

52. Cited; statutes does not constitute impermissible legislative usurpation of judicial power. State v. Compton, 233 Kan. 690, 700, 664 P.2d 1370 (1983).

53. Life sentence controlled time served in prison; sentence on aggravated battery has no bearing on defendant's parole eligibility. State v. Richard, 235 Kan. 355, 366, 681 P.2d 612 (1984).

54. Sole purpose of statute is to insure imposition of at least minimum sentence when firearm used. State v. Keeley, 236 Kan. 555, 560, 694 P.2d 422 (1985).

55. To allow modification of sentence or probation pursuant to K.S.A. 21-4603 would defeat legislative intent. State v. Coley, 236 Kan. 672, 676, 694 P.2d 479 (1985).

56. Sentencing proper where both robbers armed and appellant convicted as principal to felony murder. State v. Pink, 236 Kan. 715, 730, 696 P.2d 358 (1985).

57. Unlawful possession of firearm (K.S.A. 21-4204) does not require proof of actual control required hereunder. State v. Cunningham, 236 Kan. 842, 845, 695 P.2d 1280 (1985).

58. Scope of review hereunder limited to competent evidence of using firearm in crime; intentional use need not be shown. State v. Robinson, 10 Kan. App. 2d 135, 136, 694 P.2d 482 (1985).

59. Cited in holding defendant released on bond after conviction, but prior to sentencing, subject to mandatory consecutive sentencing provisions of K.S.A. 21-4608. State v. Sayles, 10 Kan. App. 2d 180, 182, 694 P.2d 918 (1985).

60. Cited; denying good time credits for class A felony incarceration (K.S.A. 22-3717(b)) rationally related to valid legislative purpose. Olson v. Maschner, 10 Kan. App. 2d 289, 697 P.2d 893 (1985).

61. No error committed where court mistakenly applied statute but stated probation would not be granted if permitted. State v. Zuniga, 237 Kan. 788, 796, 703 P.2d 805 (1985).

62. Where preliminary hearing evidence showed existence of handgun used in crime, defendant has burden to show weapon was not firearm. State v. Gregory, 237 Kan. 847, 849, 702 P.2d 1383 (1985).

63. Pellet gun used in commission of aggravated robbery K.S.A. 21-3427 held to be firearm. State v. Fowler, 238 Kan. 213, 217, 708 P.2d 539 (1985).

64. Cited; where one convicted of crime has never been legally sentenced, proper sentence may be imposed later. State v. Osbey, 238 Kan. 280, 286, 288, 710 P.2d 676 (1985).

65. Cited; probation following consecutive sentences discussed; not precluded, however remote such a possibility might be. State v. Keeler, 238 Kan. 356, 368, 369, 710 P.2d 1279 (1985).

66. Cited; modification of sentence, statutes to consider in sentencing examined. State v. Jennings, 240 Kan. 377, 729 P.2d 454 (1986).

67. Evidence sufficient to show use of firearm examined. State v. Adams, 12 Kan. App. 2d 191, 737 P.2d 876 (1987).

68. Elements of particular crime to be included in complaint examined. State v. Browning, 245 Kan. 26, 27, 774 P.2d 935 (1989).

69. Consequences of third or subsequent conviction of driving with suspended license determined. State v. Harpool, 246 Kan. 226, 229, 788 P.2d 281 (1990).

70. Change in statute (K.S.A. 21-4606a) expanding presumptive sentences as substantive in nature and applicable prospectively determined. State v. Sylva, 14 Kan. App. 2d 609, 611, 795 P.2d 947 (1990); affirmed 248 Kan. 118, 804 P.2d 967 (1991).

71. Lack of requirement to change life sentence so good time credits will apply examined. State v. Carmichael, 247 Kan. 619, 620, 801 P.2d 1315 (1990).

72. Prospective application of K.S.A. 21-4603(3) relative to qualified mandatory modification of sentences examined. State v. Sutherland, 248 Kan. 96, 107, 804 P.2d 970 (1991).

73. Mandate in 1989 Supp. 21-4603(3)(a) (now 1990 Supp. 21-4603(4)(a)) regarding sentence modification examined in depth; held constitutional. State v. Reed, 248 Kan. 792, 798, 811 P.2d 1163 (1991).

74. Error noted in finding defendant advised of appeal rights solely through judicial notice of defendant's experienced counsel; late appeal allowed. State v. McDaniel, 249 Kan. 341, 342, 819 P.2d 1165 (1991).

75. Noted where journal entry corrected by order nunc pro tunc to remove reference to wrong sentencing statute. State v. Hammond, 251 Kan. 501, 510, 837 P.2d 816 (1992).

76. Imposition of minimum sentence (K.S.A. 21-4501(c)) did not result in "manifest injustice." State v. Turley, 17 Kan. App. 2d 484, 490, 840 P.2d 529 (1992).

77. Mandatory prison sentence not set aside unless it is obviously unfair and shocks the court's conscience. State v. Cramer, 17 Kan. App. 2d 623, 841 P.2d 1111 (1992).

78. Probation granted by board of, probation not illegal sentence appealable by state. State v. Ruff, 252 Kan. 625, 626, 627, 628, 847 P.2d 1258 (1993).

79. Sentencing under this section erroneously applied to conviction of unlawful possession of firearm. State v. Edwards, 252 Kan. 860, 870, 871, 852 P.2d 98 (1993).

80. Cited in holding court lacked jurisdiction to convict father of rape of 15 year-old daughter where father also convicted of aggravated kidnapping. Carmichael v. State, 18 Kan. App. 2d 435, 437, 856 P.2d 934 (1993).

81. Whether court's sentence of mandatory imprisonment for alleged battered woman resulted in manifest injustice examined. State v. Coleman, 19 Kan. App. 2d 412, 417, 870 P.2d 695 (1994).

82. Whether court's ruling mandatory sentencing provision applies prior to actual sentencing rendered enhancement ineffectual examined. State v. Shortey, 256 Kan. 166, 174, 884 P.2d 426 (1994).

83. Whether corrected oral sentence prevails over erroneous application of sentence enhancement pursuant to K.S.A. 21-4204(1)(b) in journal entry examined. State v. McCloud, 256 Kan. 178, 180, 883 P.2d 775 (1994).

84. Whether application of firearms mandatory prison sentence would result in manifest injustice to defendant examined. State v. Medina, 256 Kan. 695, 696, 887 P.2d 105 (1994).

85. Cited; whether defendant's attempted bank robbery conviction may be used to increase sentence under habitual criminal act examined. State v. Brinkley, 256 Kan. 808, 821, 888 P.2d 819 (1995).

86. Whether attempted first-degree murder is an article 34 crime subject to application of firearms statute examined. State v. Gibbons, 256 Kan. 951, 965, 889 P.2d 772 (1995).

87. Whether court erred in determining firearm was not used in commission of aggravated battery examined. State v. George, 20 Kan. App. 2d 648, 654, 891 P.2d 1118 (1995).

88. Sentence hereunder within statutory limits and no manifest injustice found on review. State v. Torrance, 22 Kan. App. 2d 721, 729, 730, 922 P.2d 1109 (1996).

89. Sentences for use of firearm in committing manslaughter and for unlawful possession of firearm held not multiplicity or double jeopardy. State v. Cashman, 23 Kan. App. 2d 580, 582, 932 P.2d 469 (1997).


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