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21-3506.

History: L. 1969, ch. 180, § 21-3506; L. 1983, ch. 109, § 6; L. 1993, ch. 253, § 7; L. 1993, ch. 253, § 8; L. 2006, ch. 212, § 9; L. 2010, ch. 109, § 9; Repealed, L. 2011, ch. 30, § 288; July 1.

Source or Prior Law:

21-907.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"Reform in Kansas Domestic Violence Legislation," David J. Gottlieb and L. Eric Johnson, 31 K.L.R. 527, 554 (1983).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Criminal Law," Robert A. Wason, 32 K.L.R. 395, 396, 400 (1984).

"Criminal Law: Multiplicity and the Independence of Aggravated Sexual Battery Under KAN. STAT. ANN. § 21-3107(2) [State v. Mason, 827 P.2d 748 (Kan. 1992)]," Lance Thaxton, 32 W.L.J. 290, 291 (1993).

"Criminalizing the Intentional or Reckless Exposure to HIV: A Wake-Up Call to Kansas," Amy M. Decker, 46 K.L.R. 305 (1998).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Rape; aggravated sodomy; rape shield statute; gender. 88-162.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Conviction hereunder and of other crimes reviewed; evidence of similar offenses; instructions; no reversible error. State v. James, 217 Kan. 96, 100, 535 P.2d 991.

2. Conviction hereunder and of other offenses reviewed; failure to move for severance of offenses constitutes waiver of joinder. State v. Townsley, 217 Kan. 102, 535 P.2d 1.

3. Conviction hereunder and of other crimes affirmed; evidence admissible. State v. Donahue, 218 Kan. 351, 543 P.2d 962.

4. Defendant charged hereunder; conviction under K.S.A. 21-3505; evidence supported conviction. State v. Rhone, 219 Kan. 542, 546, 548 P.2d 752.

5. No error in admission of evidence or in failing to instruct on lesser offense. State v. Yates, 220 Kan. 635, 556 P.2d 176.

6. Conviction hereunder and of other crimes; record examined; no reversible error. State v. Lewis, 220 Kan. 791, 556 P.2d 888.

7. Conviction of aggravated robbery and aggravated sodomy reviewed and judgment affirmed. State v. Thompson, 221 Kan. 165, 173, 174, 558 P.2d 93.

8. Section does not contain elements of bill of attainder. State v. Thompson, 221 Kan. 165, 171, 173, 558 P.2d 93.

9. Statute is not unconstitutional on grounds raised. State v. Thompson, 221 Kan. 165, 171, 172, 173, 558 P.2d 93.

10. Conviction hereunder reversed; defendant's 6 th Amendment right to effective cross-examination denied by admission of out-of-court statement. State v. Fisher, 222 Kan. 76, 563 P.2d 1012.

11. Defendant charged hereunder acquitted. State v. Holt, 2 Kan. App. 2d 1, 574 P.2d 152.

12. Lewd and lascivious behavior not lesser degree of aggravated sodomy. State v. Crawford, 223 Kan. 127, 128, 573 P.2d 982.

13. Alleged trial errors reviewed in affirming conviction hereunder. State v. Gilder, 223 Kan. 220, 221, 574 P.2d 196.

14. Defendant's rights not prejudiced by one day continuance during trial proceedings; conviction affirmed. State v. Nelson, 223 Kan. 251, 573 P.2d 602.

15. No abuse of discretion in refusing to grant separate trials nor in refusal to sever counts; conviction affirmed. State v. Howell, 223 Kan. 282, 573 P.2d 1003.

16. Prejudicial error in prosecution hereunder; case remanded for new trial. State v. Nixon, 223 Kan. 788, 789, 576 P.2d 691.

17. Conviction hereunder affirmed; limitations on evidence of previous sexual conduct constitutional; statutory definition of sodomy construed. State v. Williams, 224 Kan. 468, 471, 580 P.2d 1341.

18. No error in failure to instruct jury on sodomy or patronizing a prostitute; conviction affirmed. State v. Blue, 225 Kan. 576, 580, 592 P.2d 897.

19. No error in failure to instruct jury on lewd and lascivious behavior or indecent solicitation of a child; conviction affirmed. State v. Gregg, 226 Kan. 481, 482, 602 P.2d 85.

20. Evidence sufficient to establish sufficient penetration for oral copulation with child; conviction affirmed. State v. Lovelace, 227 Kan. 348, 349, 351, 607 P.2d 49.

21. No error in trying defendants jointly; offenses were part of a common scheme; conviction of aggravated anal sodomy affirmed. State v. Tate, 228 Kan. 752, 620 P.2d 326.

22. Where allegations in information fail to constitute offense in language of statute, information fatally defective; convictions of aiding and abetting aggravated sodomy void. State v. Robinson, Lloyd & Clark, 229 Kan. 301, 302, 305, 624 P.2d 964.

23. In cases involving illicit sexual relations between adult and child, evidence of prior acts of similar nature between same parties is admissible. State v. Crossman, 229 Kan. 384, 624 P.2d 461.

24. Duty to instruct on lesser included offenses arises only when there is evidence under which defendant might reasonably have been convicted thereof. State v. Everson, 229 Kan. 542, 626 P.2d 1189.

25. Mistrial declared after two and one-half days of trial because of ineligible juror; double jeopardy did not attach. State v. Folkerts, 229 Kan. 608, 629 P.2d 173 (1981).

26. Forcing victim to commit sodomy constitutes bodily harm as used in K.S.A. 21-3421; charges not multiplicitous. State v. Chears, 231 Kan. 161, 643 P.2d 154 (1982).

27. Multiple charges involving three victims consolidated for trial. State v. Bagby, 231 Kan. 176, 642 P.2d 993 (1982).

28. Psychiatrist's testimony that person suffers rape trauma syndrome held admissible. State v. Marks, 231 Kan. 645, 646, 647 P.2d 1292 (1982).

29. Substantial prejudice to defendant avoided; court sustained objection to prosecution questions regarding pending aggravated battery charge. State v. Stellwagen, 232 Kan. 744, 659 P.2d 167 (1983).

30. No error in limiting cross-examination of witness, admitting hearsay evidence, excluding irrelevant evidence; erroneous jury instruction not prejudicial. State v. Aldrich, 232 Kan. 783, 658 P.2d 1027 (1983).

31. Crime committed on child complete in and of itself; kidnapping occurring in another county held to be independent. State v. Calderon, 233 Kan. 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 661 P.2d 781 (1983).

32. Prior to amendment of act (July 1, 1983); husband not guilty of aggravated sodomy with wife. State v. Dubish, 234 Kan. 708, 712, 675 P.2d 877 (1984).

33. Identi-Kit composite goes to weight and sufficiency; pretrial photographic lineup identification not impermissibly suggestive; spouse's observation of keys not privileged. State v. Galloway, 235 Kan. 70, 680 P.2d 268 (1984).

34. Foundation for admission of tape recordings in most jurisdictions outlined and applied ("911" recording of crime in progress). State v. Williams, 235 Kan. 485, 486, 491, 681 P.2d 660 (1984).

35. Refusal to commit pursuant to K.S.A. 22-3430; sentence imposed under K.S.A. 21-4608. State v. Adkins, 236 Kan. 259, 689 P.2d 880 (1984).

36. Behavior and comments of defendant during arrest admitted as part of res gestae. State v. Davis, 236 Kan. 538, 539, 694 P.2d 418 (1985).

37. Sufficiency of uncorroborated prosecutrix testimony evidence sustained. State v. Lile, 237 Kan. 210, 211, 699 P.2d 456 (1985).

38. Right to counsel infringed where law partner represents another charged with same crime and conflict arises. State v. Lem'Mons, 238 Kan. 1, 2, 705 P.2d 552 (1985).

39. Effect of delays from interlocutory appeals (K.S.A. 22-3603) on constitutional right to speedy trial discussed. State v. Galloway, 238 Kan. 100, 708 P.2d 508 (1985).

40. In-custody statement without counsel, witness' comment on defendant's silence, impeachment of prosecution witnesses discussed. State v. O'Neal, 238 Kan. 183, 708 P.2d 206 (1985).

41. Evidence of prior crimes (K.S.A. 60-455), sufficiency of complaint affidavit, photographic evidence, trial consolidation discussed. State v. Breazeale, 238 Kan. 714, 714 P.2d 1356 (1986).

42. Conviction for acts committed on Indian reservation; Allen instruction, Brady evidence rule, sufficiency of evidence examined. United States v. Blandin, 784 F.2d 1048 (1986).

43. Warrantless arrest, confession, prosecutorial misconduct, expert testimony, lesser included offenses, excessive sentencing examined. State v. Strauch, 239 Kan. 203, 718 P.2d 613 (1986).

44. Admission of state rebuttal testimony by former prosecuting attorney and rape counselor examined. State v. Hayes, 239 Kan. 443, 720 P.2d 1049 (1986).

45. Statute compared with K.S.A. 21-3503 and applicability of each regarding date of crime examined. State v. Jackson, 239 Kan. 463, 471, 721 P.2d 232 (1986).

46. Expert testimony on rape trauma syndrome where consent is defense (K.S.A. 21-3502) examined. State v. McQuillen, 239 Kan. 590, 721 P.2d 740 (1986).

47. Direct appeal from sentence imposed after plea of guilty or nolo contendere (K.S.A. 22-3602) examined. State v. Harrold, 239 Kan. 645, 722 P.2d 563 (1986).

48. Videotaped testimony of child victim does not per se violate right to confront witness; newly discovered evidence; constitutional issue first raised on appeal. State v. Johnson, 240 Kan. 326, 729 P.2d 1163 (1986).

49. Recommendation regarding training during incarceration, consideration of sentencing criteria examined. State v. Bennett, 240 Kan. 575, 731 P.2d 284 (1987).

50. Use of state rebuttal testimony on alibi defense, eyewitness identification instruction examined. State v. Willis, 240 Kan. 580, 731 P.2d 287 (1987).

51. Technical irregularities in execution of search warrant, voluntariness of confession examined. State v. Holloman, 240 Kan. 589, 731 P.2d 294 (1987).

52. Cited by concurring judge in majority holding that aggravated sexual battery (K.S.A. 21-3518) not lesser included offense of indecent liberties (K.S.A. 21-3503). State v. Fulcher, 12 Kan. App. 2d 169, 173, 737 P.2d 61 (1987).

53. Non-identical offense to aggravated incest (K.S.A. 21-3603), K.S.A. 60-460 hearing examined. State v. Hutchcraft, 242 Kan. 55, 744 P.2d 849 (1987).

54. Prior crimes instruction, jury requests for information, venue, victim's prior sexual conduct examined. State v. Redford, 242 Kan. 658, 659, 750 P.2d 1013 (1988).

55. Conviction affirmed; alleged child victim's out-of-court statements (K.S.A. 60-460(dd)), evidence of defendant's character, alleged victim's preliminary hearing testimony, closing argument examined. State v. Koune, 243 Kan. 218, 757 P.2d 289 (1988).

56. Conviction affirmed; incidental charges, multiplicitous charges, sufficiency of evidence examined. State v. Howard, 243 Kan. 699, 763 P.2d 607 (1988).

57. Cited; age of victim in information as common-sense construction of nonmarriage, testimony of child protection case worker examined. State v. Wade, 244 Kan. 136, 766 P.2d 811 (1989).

58. Evidence of prior crimes, preservation of in limine issue, time limitations on closing arguments; retroactivity of statutes of limitations examined. State v. Nunn, 244 Kan. 207, 209, 768 P.2d 268 (1989).

59. Consideration of separate indictments, prosecutorial misconduct in closing arguments examined. State v. Walker, 244 Kan. 275, 276, 768 P.2d 290 (1989).

60. Expert testimony on characteristics of rape victims and expert witnesses, victim's behavior subsequent to alleged assaults examined. State v. Reser, 244 Kan. 306, 767 P.2d 1277 (1989).

61. Absence of instruction on attempted (K.S.A. 21-3107) aggravated criminal sodomy permitting child-victim's testimony by closed-circuit television (K.S.A. 22-3434) examined. State v. Eaton, 244 Kan. 370, 371, 769 P.2d 1157 (1989).

62. Right to speedy trial, expert witness testimony regarding psychology and treatability of sexual offenders examined. State v. Clements, 244 Kan. 411, 770 P.2d 447 (1989).

63. Time limits on district court's jurisdiction to modify sentences (K.S.A. 21-4603(3)), procedures to attack conditions of imprisonment (K.S.A. 60-1501 et seq) examined. State v. Saft, 244 Kan. 517, 521, 769 P.2d 675 (1989).

64. Exculpatory evidence, prior crime evidence, sufficiency of evidence, eyewitness identification instruction examined. State v. Smith, 245 Kan. 381, 383, 781 P.2d 666 (1989).

65. Sentencing and resentencing after remand; vindictiveness and discretion examined. State v. Heywood, 245 Kan. 615, 783 P.2d 890 (1989).

66. Oral-genital stimulation known as cunnilingus is not included within meaning of sodomy; conviction based thereon cannot stand. State v. Moppin, 245 Kan. 639, 644, 783 P.2d 878 (1989).

67. Aggravated sexual battery (K.S.A. 21-3518) not an included crime hereunder. State v. Damewood, 245 Kan. 676, 686, 783 P.2d 1249 (1989).

68. Delays in holding trial caused by defendant's motion for competency hearing, basis of search warrant examined. State v. Prewett, 246 Kan. 39, 40, 785 P.2d 956 (1990).

69. Warrantless arrest for felony upon probable cause on person's home front porch as no intrusion on privacy examined. State v. Riddle, 246 Kan. 277, 788 P.2d 266 (1990).

70. Distinctions among K.S.A. 22-3433, 22-3434 and 60-460(dd) regarding child-victim testimony examined; application of statutes under facts presented determined. State v. Lamb, 14 Kan. App. 2d 664, 798 P.2d 506 (1990).

71. Suggestive pretrial procedures, evidence from automobile and home, sufficiency of evidence, peremptory challenges examined. State v. Skelton, 247 Kan. 34, 795 P.2d 349 (1990).

72. Charge of anal sex as sufficient, jury instructions on crime and other crimes evidence, social worker's testimony examined. State v. Wilson, 247 Kan. 87, 795 P.2d 336 (1990).

73. Cunnilingus as not constituting sodomy (K.S.A. 21-3505) noted; ruling not applied retroactively. State v. Neer, 247 Kan. 137, 138, 795 P.2d 362 (1990).

74. Cunnilingus as not constituting sodomy noted; conviction for aggravated criminal sodomy based upon such act cannot stand. State v. Crawford, 247 Kan. 223, 225, 795 P.2d 401 (1990).

75. Cunnilingus as not constituting sodomy noted; conviction for aggravated incest (K.S.A. 21-3603) based upon such act cannot stand. State v. Schad, 247 Kan. 242, 244, 795 P.2d 406 (1990).

76. Sentence exceeding life expectancy, timeliness and merits of motion for new trial, when counsel required for postconviction proceedings examined. State v. Nunn, 247 Kan. 576, 577, 802 P.2d 547 (1990).

77. Lack of requirement to change life sentence so good time credits apply, when counsel required for postconviction motions examined. State v. Carmichael, 247 Kan. 619, 620, 801 P.2d 1315 (1990).

78. Rules governing motions for new trial based upon newly discovered evidence reiterated. State v. Redford, 248 Kan. 130, 804 P.2d 983 (1991).

79. Late challenge to sufficiency of information, circumstances surrounding sentencing hearings examined. State v. Waterberry, 248 Kan. 169, 804 P.2d 1000 (1991).

80. Attempted aggravated criminal sodomy as underlying felony in felony murder question examined. State v. William, 248 Kan. 389, 400, 807 P.2d 1292 (1991).

81. Aggravated sexual battery not lesser included crime of attempted aggravated sodomy or attempted rape; test for determining multiplicitous charges. State v. Mason, 250 Kan. 393, 394, 827 P.2d 748 (1992).

82. Jury selection by voter registration lists, sufficiency of evidence as participant in crime, evidence of gang membership examined. State v. Bailey, 251 Kan. 156, 158, 834 P.2d 342 (1992).

83. Admissibility of minor victim's entire statement, testimony of mental health therapist as to truth of minor victim's story, sentence imposed examined. State v. Arrington, 251 Kan. 747, 840 P.2d 477 (1992).

84. Evidence supporting determination to try juvenile as adult (K.S.A. 38-1636) upheld; admission of confession, evidence of gang membership examined. State v. Hooks, 251 Kan. 755, 756, 840 P.2d 483 (1992).

85. Admissibility of prior crimes evidence and preservation of issue on appeal examined. State v. Clements, 252 Kan. 86, 843 P.2d 679 (1992).

86. Trial of juvenile as adult, selection of jury, application of rape shield statute. State v. Walker, 252 Kan. 117, 118, 843 P.2d 203 (1992).

87. Voluntariness of confession, extrajudicial statement of accused, investigative services for indigent defendant examined. State v. Snodgrass, 252 Kan. 253, 254, 843 P.2d 720 (1992).

88. Under facts alleged and proved, conviction of aggravated incest (K.S.A. 21-3603) bars prosecution hereunder. State v. Chandler, 17 Kan. App. 2d 512, 839 P.2d 551 (1992).

89. Cited; defendant allowed one request for modification of sentence under K.S.A. 21-4603. State v. Smith, 17 Kan. App. 2d 746, 843 P.2d 297 (1992).

90. Jury selection, confession, gang membership, rape shield statute, photographic exhibits, trial misconduct, instructions, peremptory challenge, "Hard 40" statute, examined. State v. Walker, 252 Kan. 279, 281, 845 P.2d 1 (1993).

91. Application of K.S.A. 21-4601 and 21-4606 to sentencing rather than modification noted; when provisions of K.S.A. 21-4603(4) applicable examined. State v. Mareska, 253 Kan. 431, 855 P.2d 954 (1993).

92. Indigent criminal defendant's right to counsel, charging two or more crimes in same complaint examined. State v. Cromwell, 253 Kan. 495, 497, 856 P.2d 1299 (1993).

93. Victim's mental capacity to consent to intercourse was issue for trier of fact. State v. Juarez, 19 Kan. App. 2d 37, 39, 861 P.2d 1382 (1993).

94. Whether cumulative erroneous jury instructions regarding essential elements of the crime charged is reversible error and whether codefendant who received harsher sentence than other codefendant furnished record showing prejudicial error examined. State v. Castoreno, 255 Kan. 401, 408, 412, 874 P.2d 1173 (1994).

95. Whether defendant sentenced after KSGA (K.S.A. 21-4701 et seq.) enactment for crimes committed before enactment is denied equal protection by preclusion of sentencing guideline retroactivity examined. State v. Fierro, 257 Kan. 639, 657, 895 P.2d 186 (1995).

96. Whether aggravated sexual battery is a lesser included offense of aggravated criminal sodomy examined. State v. Horn, 20 Kan. App. 2d 689, 690, 892 P.2d 513 (1995).

97. KDOC use of all records available in making retroactivity determination does not violate offenders' rights to due process. Farris v. McKune, 259 Kan. 181, 192, 911 P.2d 177 (1996).

98. Aggravated criminal sodomy is a general criminal intent crime; specific intent instruction not required. State v. Plunkett, 261 Kan. 1024, 1033, 934 P.2d 113 (1997).

99. Vulnerability of victim based on age improper aggravating factor for sentence departure since age already element of crime. State v. Salcido-Corral 262 Kan. 392, 414, 940 P.2d 11 (1997).

100. Jury unanimity not required concerning means by which crime is committed if substantial evidence supports each alternative means. State v. Hemby, 264 Kan. 542, 547, 957 P.2d 428 (1998).

101. Conviction of aggravated criminal sodomy supported by substantial competent evidence. State v. Downey, 27 Kan. App. 2d 350, 2 P.3d 191 (2000).

102. Erroneous jury instruction concerning statutory definition of sodomy did not violate due process. Hemby v. Hannigan, 117 F. Supp. 2d 1057, 1060 (2000).

103. Cumulative errors committed by police interrogator and prosecutor require reversal. State v. Elnicki, 279 Kan. 47, 105 P.3d 1222 (2005).

104. Charge hereunder; court discusses multiple act cases requiring jury unanimity on specific criminal acts. State v. Voyles, 284 Kan. 239, 240, 160 P.3d 794 (2007).

105. Mentioned; statute of limitation held to have run in cases involving nameless warrant containing DNA references. State v. Belt, 285 Kan. 949, 959, 179 P.3d 443 (2008).

106. Convictions hereunder reversed; prosecutor's arguments, questions and presentation of evidence alleging defendant's homosexuality improper. State v. Bloomquist, 39 Kan. App. 2d 101, 102, 109, 178 P.3d 42 (2008).

107. Time is not an essential element of rape; evidence supported that abuse occurred in time frame specified in information. State v. Huntley, 39 Kan. App. 2d 180, 185, 177 P.3d 1001 (2008).

108. Conviction hereunder, upward departure in sentencing upheld based on three aggravating factors; age factor not necessary for upward departure. State v. Rutherford, 39 Kan. App. 2d 767, 768, 777, 778, 184 P.3d 959 (2008).

109. Cited; K.S.A. 21-3502 and 21-3504 do not violate due process or equal protection clauses. State v. Reed, 40 Kan. App. 2d 269, 278, 191 P.3d 341 (2008).

110. Cited; upward departure sentence for conviction hereunder based on fiduciary relationship between defendant and victim. State v. Horn, 40 Kan. App. 2d 687, 689 196 P.3d 379 (2008).

111. Cited; defendant required to prove timely appeal would have been sought had defendant been properly informed of appeal right. State v. Gill, 287 Kan. 289, 290, 196 P.3d 369 (2008).

112. Cited in discussion of intent involving certain sexual crimes and evidence of prior sexual conduct. State v. Prine, 287 Kan. 713, 727, 200 P.3d 1 (2009).

113. Conflicting statutory provisions prescribing different sentences for criminal offense, rule of leniency applicable. State v. Horn, 288 Kan. 690, 206 P.3d 526 (2009).

114. Conviction hereunder affirmed but sentence under K.S.A. 21-4643 vacated because defendant's age not proven. State v. Bello, 289 Kan. 191, 211 P.3d 139 (2009).

115. When defendant is charged with off-grid severity level of rape under K.S.A. 21-3502(a)(2), age must be proven to jury. State v. Morningstar, 289 Kan. 488, 213 P.3d 1045 (2009).

116. Conviction hereunder upheld but sentencing reversed and remanded for resentencing. State v. Trautloff, 289 Kan. 793, 217 P.3d 15 (2009).

117. Conviction of sex crimes upheld; court discusses principles relating to witness credibility evidence. State v. Penn, 41 Kan. App. 2d 251, 201 P.3d 752 (2009).

118. Conviction hereunder affirmed; alleged errors in admission of testimony and denial in exclusion of documents rejected on appeal. State v. Gaona, 41 Kan. App. 2d 1064, 208 P.3d 308 (2009).

119. Defendant convicted under K.S.A. 21-3505(a)(1) and ordered to register as a sex offender; affirmed. State v. Coman, 42 Kan. App. 2d 592, 214 P.3d 1198 (2009).

120. In prosecution for rape of a child under the age of 14, aggravated criminal sodomy and aggravated indecent liberties with a child, trial court's failure to instruct jury that defendant was 18 years of age or older at the time the offenses were committed was harmless, as defendant had testified that he was well over the age of 18 at the time of the charged offenses. State v. Race, 293 Kan. 69, 259 P.3d 707 (2011).

121. Conviction of aggravated criminal sodomy of child under 14 affirmed where state presented sufficient evidence of oral contact pursuant to K.S.A. 21-3501(2). State v. Britt, 295 Kan. 1018, 287 P.3d 905 (2012).

122. The class of offenders sentenced under Jessica's Law for aggravated indecent liberties with a child under the age of 14, are similarly situated to offenders sentenced for rape or aggravated criminal sodomy and serving hard 25 life sentences. State v. Kelsey, 51 Kan. App. 2d 819, 827, 356 P.3d 414 (2015).


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