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21-3405.

History: L. 1969, ch. 180, § 21-3405; L. 1972, ch. 113, § 1; L. 1992, ch. 298, § 7; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 22; Repealed, L. 2010, ch. 136, § 307; July 1, 2011.

Source or Prior Law:

8-529.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

Change in standard of care mentioned in summary of 1972 legislature, Robert F. Bennett, 41 J.B.A.K. 7, 53 (1972).

"Vehicular Homicide in Kansas: A Need for Reform," Hal Pierce and Victor Poulos, 47 J.B.A.K. 209 (1978).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Evidence," 29 K.L.R. 497, 499 (1981).

"Barring the Slayer's Bounty: An Analysis of Kansas' Troubled Experience," John F. Kuether, 23 W.L.J. 494, 516 (1984).

"Harassment in the Workplace: When will the Reactions of Ethnic Minorities and Women be Considered Reasonable," Sarah McLean, 40 W.L.J. 593 (2001).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Juvenile code; authorized orders of disposition. 79-197.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. In prosecution hereunder, suppression of tape recorded admissions error; statements voluntary; no denial of due process. State v. Cotton, 218 Kan. 457, 543 P.2d 936.

2. Construed; higher degree than simple negligence required for violation of section; conviction reversed. State v. Gordon, 219 Kan. 643, 644, 645, 653, 549 P.2d 886.

3. Construed with K.S.A. 21-3404; death caused by wanton conduct of defendant; section properly invoked. State v. Makin, 223 Kan. 743, 744, 746, 748, 576 P.2d 666.

4. Vehicular homicide held to be lesser included offense of involuntary manslaughter except where conduct was wanton. State v. Choens, 224 Kan. 402, 404, 580 P.2d 1298.

5. While prescribed standard of conduct varies with circumstances, the statute is not unconstitutionally vague. State v. Randol, 226 Kan. 347, 348 to 351, 355, 597 P.2d 672.

6. Statute not unconstitutional; speeding, failure to yield right of way, failure to stop at stop sign and reckless driving are not lesser included offenses. State v. Boydston, 4 Kan. App. 2d 540, 541, 543, 609 P.2d 224.

7. Provisions of K.S.A. 8-1001 become operative only after a person is arrested or otherwise taken into custody. State v. Williams, 4 Kan. App. 2d 651, 653, 610 P.2d 111 (1980).

8. Mentioned in discussing "reasonable"; not unconstitutionally vague as used in K.S.A. 21-3608(1)(b). State v. Fisher, 230 Kan. 192, 193, 631 P.2d 239 (1981).

9. Violation of city ordinance prohibiting same act does not count toward conviction under K.S.A. 8-285 (before 1982 amendment). State v. Wood, 231 Kan. 699, 701, 647 P.2d 1327 (1982).

10. Cited in holding "substantially," as applied to one-way glass in vehicles, establishes proscribed conduct. State v. Rose, 234 Kan. 1044, 1047, 677 P.2d 1011 (1984).

11. Cited in holding diversion agreement in prior DUI case (K.S.A. 8-1567) considered conviction for sentence enhancement. State v. Clevenger, 235 Kan. 864, 683 P.2d 1272 (1984).

12. Statutory changes in K.S.A. 38-1602(b)(1) not retroactively applied to juvenile charged before change effective. In re Hockenbury, 9 Kan. App. 2d 450, 452, 680 P.2d 561 (1984).

13. Cited; some wantonness shown at preliminary hearing (K.S.A. 22-2902) on manslaughter charge (K.S.A. 21-3404); jury question; error to dismiss. State v. Burrell, 237 Kan. 303, 306, 699 P.2d 499 (1985).

14. Audio/visual recording of proceedings, MADD and SADD buttons worn by spectators, polygraph test, intoxylizer test, restitution sentence discussed. State v. McNaught, 238 Kan. 567, 713 P.2d 457 (1986).

15. Aggravated vehicular homicide patterned directly hereon; causal connection between defendant's driving and victim's death essential element. State v. Woodman, 12 Kan. App. 2d 110, 113, 114, 735 P.2d 1102 (1987).

16. Cited; under K.S.A. 21-3610, seller need not have knowledge of minor's age; K.S.A. 21-3610 meets constitutional tests. State v. Robinson, 239 Kan. 269, 271, 272, 718 P.2d 1313 (1986).

17. Where crime does not involve dishonesty or false statement, failure to give credibility instruction thereon correct. Fudge v. City of Kansas City, 239 Kan. 369, 376, 720 P.2d 1093 (1986).

18. Cited; aggravated vehicular homicide (K.S.A. 21-3405a) as concurrent and controlling involuntary manslaughter (K.S.A. 21-3404) examined. State v. Goodnow, 12 Kan. App. 2d 294, 295, 740 P.2d 113 (1987).

19. Cited; viable fetus as not a "human being" within meaning of aggravated vehicular homicide statute (K.S.A. 21-3405a) determined. State v. Trudell, 243 Kan. 29, 32, 755 P.2d 511 (1988).

20. Cited; violation as lesser included offense of aggravated vehicular homicide (K.S.A. 21-3405a), distinction in manner of driving causing accident examined. State v. Hickey, 12 Kan. App. 2d 781, 782, 757 P.2d 735 (1988).

21. History of K.S.A. 8-2117 (juvenile traffic offenders) examined; limitations on length and places of incarceration determined. State v. D.L.P., 13 Kan. App. 2d 647, 652, 778 P.2d 851 (1989).

22. What constitutes a "traffic offense" as defined in K.S.A. 8-2117(d) examined; driving with suspended license (K.S.A. 8-262) held not within definition. State v. Frazier, 248 Kan. 963, 970, 811 P.2d 1240 (1991).

23. Refusal of court to instruct on vehicular homicide as lesser included offense of second-degree murder examined. State v. Stone, 253 Kan. 105, 112, 853 P.2d 662 (1993).

24. Cited in holding court lacked jurisdiction to convict father of rape of 15 year-old daughter where father also convicted of aggravated kidnapping. Carmichael v. State, 18 Kan. App. 2d 435, 442, 856 P.2d 934 (1993).

25. Whether evidence was sufficient to establish defendant's driving constituted a material deviation from reasonable standard of care examined. State v. Trcka, 20 Kan. App. 2d 84, 86, 88, 884 P.2d 434 (1994).

26. Contributory negligence is not a defense to vehicular homicide but a circumstance to be considered. State v. Chastain, 265 Kan. 16, 23, 960 P.2d 756 (1998).

27. Running through red light does not constitute "material deviation" from standard of care required for conviction of vehicular homicide. State v. Krovvidi, 274 Kan. 1059, 58 P.3d 687 (2002).

28. State was not required to have evidence of an aggravating factor to prove that defendant's conduct constituted a material deviation; instead, state was only required to prove a material deviation under the totality of the circumstances to support vehicular homicide conviction. State v. Allen, 49 Kan. App. 2d 162, 305 P.3d 702 (2013).


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