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21-3402.

History: L. 1969, ch. 180, § 21-3402; L. 1992, ch. 298, § 4; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 19; L. 1996, ch. 158, § 6; L. 1999, ch. 164, § 5; Repealed, L. 2010, ch. 136, § 307; July 1, 2011.

Source or Prior Law:

21-402.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

"The Doctrine of Lesser Included Offenses in Kansas," Kay Adam, Helen Packard Dupre, 15 W.L.J. 44 (1976).

"Felony Murder in Kansas," S. Jill Weinlood, 26 K.L.R. 145, 149 (1977).

"Constitutional Law: Everything You Say Can and Will Be Used Against You in a Court of Law...or Will It? [State v. Rakestraw, 871 P.2d 1274 (Kan. 1994)]," Thomas J. Parascandola, 34 W.L.J. 174, 179 (1994).

"Solidifying the Use of Juvenile Proceedings as Sentence Enhancement and Clarifying Second-Degree Murder," Kay Redeker, 37 W.L.J. 483 (1998).

"Criminalizing the Intentional or Reckless Exposure to HIV: A Wake-Up Call to Kansas," Amy M. Decker, 46 K.L.R. 305 (1998).

"It Can Happen in an Instant: Rethinking Pattern Instructions for Kansas on Premeditated Murder," Saraliene S. Smith, 16 Kan. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y, No. 1, 1 (2006).

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. K.S.A. 21-402 mentioned in considering sufficiency of evidence. State v. O'Neal, 204 Kan. 226, 228, 461 P.2d 801.

2. Conviction hereunder reversed; error in failure to require production of statements of police officers; use of surprise witness; comment on lie detector test. State v. Stafford, 213 Kan. 152, 153, 515 P.2d 769. Opinion modified and rehearing denied: 213 Kan. 585, 518 P.2d 136.

3. Conviction hereunder; instruction defining malice proper; evidence examined; no reversible error. State v. Wilson, 215 Kan. 437, 438, 524 P.2d 224.

4. Instruction of lesser offense of second degree murder not reversible error; absence of timely objection. State v. Carpenter, 215 Kan. 573, 527 P.2d 1333.

5. Conviction hereunder; prosecution for first degree murder and rape; record reviewed; no reversible error. State v. Smith, 216 Kan. 265, 530 P.2d 1215.

6. Referred to; failure to instruct on involuntary manslaughter in prosecution for murder held error. State v. Childers, 217 Kan. 410, 416, 536 P.2d 1349.

7. Various alleged trial errors reviewed after conviction hereunder; judgment affirmed. State v. Sparks, 217 Kan. 204, 535 P.2d 901.

8. Prosecution hereunder; conviction of voluntary manslaughter reversed; failure to instruct on lesser offense. State v. Clark, 218 Kan. 18, 21, 542 P.2d 291.

9. Failure to suppress certain testimony and error in jury instructions; reversible error. State v. McCorgary, 218 Kan. 358, 359, 543 P.2d 952.

10. Failure to instruct jury hereunder in prosecution for murder not reversible error; evidence did not clearly require. State v. Arney, 218 Kan. 369, 374, 544 P.2d 334.

11. Sixteen year old held subject to prosecution hereunder; not amenable to program available to juvenile court. State v. Green, 218 Kan. 438, 439, 544 P.2d 356.

12. Conviction hereunder; charge under K.S.A. 21-3401; information omitting term "willfully" not defective. State v. Bright, 218 Kan. 476, 543 P.2d 928.

13. Conviction hereunder after charge under K.S.A. 21-3401 upheld. State v. Bradford, 219 Kan. 336, 340, 548 P.2d 812.

14. Incriminating oral statement made to police detective although Miranda warnings not given admissible; conviction sustained. State v. Bohanan, 220 Kan. 121, 551 P.2d 828.

15. Conviction hereunder affirmed; instructions framed substantially in language of statute upheld; evidence sufficient. State v. Beard, 220 Kan. 580, 552 P.2d 900.

16. Mentioned; intent requirements of K.S.A. 1976 Supp. 21-3431 declared unconstitutional; impermissibly vague. State v. Kirby, 221 Kan. 1, 5, 563 P.2d 408.

17. Defendant charged hereunder convicted of voluntary manslaughter; failure to instruct on lesser included offense; reversed. State v. Seelke, 221 Kan. 672, 675, 678, 561 P.2d 869.

18. Conviction hereunder in prosecution for first degree murder; not error to fail to instruct on involuntary manslaughter and battery. State v. Franklin, 221 Kan. 739, 743, 561 P.2d 860.

19. Conviction hereunder; court did not err in refusing to instruct on either voluntary or involuntary manslaughter. State v. Burrow & Dohlmar, 221 Kan. 745, 561 P.2d 864.

20. Conviction hereunder upheld; various alleged trial court errors reviewed and no reversible error shown. State v. Childers, 222 Kan. 32, 36, 563 P.2d 999.

21. Instructions to jury not erroneous; denial of new trial upheld; conviction affirmed. State v. Stafford, 223 Kan. 62, 573 P.2d 970.

22. Statement by declarant unavailable as witness held admissible under K.S.A. 60-460 (d) (3); conviction affirmed. State v. Adams, 223 Kan. 254, 573 P.2d 604.

23. Alleged trial errors received on appeal from conviction hereunder; judgment affirmed. State v. Coop, 223 Kan. 302, 310, 573 P.2d 1017.

24. Mandatory minimum sentence requirements denying probation and parole provisions upheld; conviction affirmed. State v. Freeman, 223 Kan. 362, 574 P.2d 950.

25. Failure to give clear answers to questions from jury constituted prejudicial error; conviction reversed. State v. Dunnan, 223 Kan. 428, 573 P.2d 1068.

26. Prosecution for felony murder; conviction of second degree murder affirmed; alleged errors reviewed. State v. Cates, 223 Kan. 724, 576 P.2d 657.

27. Alleged errors in conviction hereunder reviewed; conviction affirmed. State v. Sanders, 224 Kan. 138, 578 P.2d 702.

28. Petition under K.S.A. 60-1507 to vacate sentence on conviction hereunder properly dismissed; no exceptional circumstances excusing failure to perfect appeal. Weser v. State, 224 Kan. 272, 579 P.2d 1214.

29. Review of alleged trial errors on appeal from conviction hereunder; conviction affirmed. State v. White & Stewart, 225 Kan. 87, 89, 587 P.2d 1259.

30. Defendant charged hereunder, convicted of voluntary manslaughter; reversed; erroneous instructions. State v. Farley, 225 Kan. 127, 587 P.2d 337.

31. Conviction hereunder upheld notwithstanding a verdict of not guilty of attempted murder by reason of insanity. State v. Schultz, 225 Kan. 135, 136, 587 P.2d 901.

32. Conviction hereunder; photographs of victim admissible if relevant and are not rendered inadmissible because they are enlarged. State v. Gutierrez, 225 Kan. 393, 590 P.2d 1063.

33. Conviction upheld; Miranda rights waived by inference. State v. Jackson, 226 Kan. 302, 597 P.2d 255.

34. Cited in upholding second degree murder conviction. State v. Levier, 226 Kan. 461, 601 P.2d 1116.

35. Appeal from conviction hereunder. State v. Henderson, 226 Kan. 726, 727, 603 P.2d 613.

36. Conviction of second degree murder affirmed; jury instructions were proper. State v. Egbert, 227 Kan. 266, 606 P.2d 1022.

37. Defendant can be tried and convicted of second degree murder upon proof of facts which would substantiate first degree murder verdict. State v. Carpenter, 228 Kan. 115, 121, 612 P.2d 163.

38. Incitement to riot statute not unconstitutionally vague nor violation of right to freedom of speech; conviction upheld. State v. Dargatz, 228 Kan. 322, 614 P.2d 430.

39. Confession during in-custody interrogation, absence of counsel, voluntariness-factors to consider, right to remain silent all discussed. State v. Newfield, 229 Kan. 347, 348, 623 P.2d 1349.

40. Where defendant pushed plunger on needle in deceased's arm and pulled gun trigger ultimately resulting in death, defendant properly convicted of first degree murder. State v. Cobb, 229 Kan. 522, 525, 625 P.2d 1133.

41. Conviction hereunder reversed; guilty plea not knowingly made. Clinkingbeard v. State, 6 Kan. App. 2d 716, 717, 634 P.2d 159 (1981).

42. Mentioned; defendant originally charged; charge amended. State v. Williams, 6 Kan. App. 2d 833, 834, 635 P.2d 1274 (1981).

43. Conviction hereunder affirmed; alleged errors of trial court reviewed. State v. Staab, 230 Kan. 329, 635 P.2d 257 (1981).

44. Considered in holding Federal Major Crimes Act conferred exclusive federal jurisdiction over crimes committed by or against Indians. State v. Mitchell, 231 Kan. 144, 642 P.2d 981 (1982).

45. Admissibility of defendant's statements made prior to Miranda warning considered. State v. Taylor, 231 Kan. 171, 642 P.2d 989 (1982).

46. Evidence sufficient to refute defendant's contention that evidence supports inference of no premeditation. State v. Garcia, 233 Kan. 589, 609, 664 P.2d 1343 (1983).

47. Cited in holding K.S.A. 60-407 and 60-417 do not prohibit witness from testifying simply because of age. State v. Thrasher, 233 Kan. 1016, 1017, 666 P.2d 722 (1983).

48. Where no showing fatal shooting occurred while defending another, instruction on self-defense as to defendant only proper. State v. Martin, 234 Kan. 115, 670 P.2d 1331 (1983).

49. Officer inquiring of defendant during pat down "where his weapon was" not violative of Miranda rights. State v. Roadenbaugh, 234 Kan. 474, 673 P.2d 1166 (1983).

50. Reference in sentencing to fact crime had characteristics of first-degree murder not improper. State v. Kerley, 236 Kan. 863, 864, 696 P.2d 975 (1985).

51. Separate trials, past alcohol/drug abuse records, post-Miranda statement, antagonism between counsel and voluntary intoxication discussed. State v. Falke, 237 Kan. 668, 669, 703 P.2d 1362 (1985).

52. Polygraph tests, drunkenness, instructions on manslaughter, confession and intent discussed. State v. Mason, 238 Kan. 129, 708 P.2d 963 (1985).

53. Sexual battery (K.S.A. 21-3517, 21-3518) as lesser rape offenses discussed. State v. Galloway, 238 Kan. 415, 710 P.2d 1320 (1985).

54. Acquittal in fourth trial; question reserved on admissibility of defendant's voluntary testimony at third trial examined. State v. Willcox, 240 Kan. 310, 729 P.2d 451 (1986).

55. Information omitting one or more essential elements of crime charged examined. State v. Wilson, 240 Kan. 606, 731 P.2d 306 (1987).

56. Instruction on lesser included offenses (K.S.A. 21-3107), self-defense, diminished capacity, photographic evidence examined. State v. Hill, 242 Kan. 68, 744 P.2d 1228 (1987).

57. Automatic exclusion of undisclosed witness' testimony, prosecutorial misstatements, objections to instructions (K.S.A. 22-3414), lesser included offenses (K.S.A. 21-3107) examined. State v. Cummings, 242 Kan. 84, 744 P.2d 858 (1987).

58. Aggravated assault (K.S.A. 21-3410) not lesser included offense (K.S.A. 21-3301) of attempted (K.S.A. 21-3301) second degree murder. State v. Daniels, 12 Kan. App. 2d 479, 481, 484, 753 P.2d 300 (1987).

59. Cited; viable fetus as not a "human being" within meaning of aggravated vehicular homicide statute (K.S.A. 21-3405a) determined. State v. Trudell, 243 Kan. 29, 32, 755 P.2d 511 (1988).

60. Instructions on voluntary manslaughter (K.S.A. 21-3403) and self-defense (K.S.A. 21-3211) but not involuntary manslaughter (K.S.A. 21-3404) as error examined. State v. Griblin, 12 Kan. App. 2d 677, 753 P.2d 843 (1988).

61. Conviction affirmed; admissibility of accused's extrajudicial statements, propriety of jury instructions on insanity and diminished capacity examined. State v. Morris, 244 Kan. 22, 765 P.2d 1120 (1988).

62. Cited; instruction inferring malice, premeditation and deliberation from use of deadly weapon examined. State v. Beebe, 244 Kan. 48, 55, 766 P.2d 158 (1988).

63. Applicability of K.S.A. 77-201 Fourth to statutory authority governing Kansas parole board's power to grant or deny parole determined. Haney v. Hamilton, 13 Kan. App. 2d 269, 768 P.2d 832 (1989).

64. Elements of malice as necessary to be alleged in complaint examined. State v. Browning, 245 Kan. 26, 27, 774 P.2d 935 (1989).

65. Doctrine of self-defense (K.S.A. 21-3211) cannot be invoked to excuse killing done in mutual combat willingly entered into (K.S.A. 21-3214). State v. Meyers, 245 Kan. 471, 478, 781 P.2d 700 (1989).

66. Involuntary manslaughter (K.S.A. 21-3404) not a lesser included crime (K.S.A. 21-3107) of aiding and abetting (K.S.A. 21-3205) second degree murder. State v. Burgess, 245 Kan. 481, 484, 781 P.2d 694 (1989).

67. Reversal of felony murder conviction where child abuse underlying felony does not bar retrial on second-degree murder charge. In re Habeas Corpus Petition of Lucas, 246 Kan. 486, 487, 789 P.2d 1157 (1990).

68. Dismissal of juror and replacement failure to instruct on lesser included offense, disparate sentences from codefendants examined. State v. Stallings, 246 Kan. 642, 792 P.2d 1013 (1990).

69. When instruction necessary on involuntary manslaughter as lesser included offense of first degree murder examined. State v. Burnison, 247 Kan. 19, 27, 795 P.2d 32 (1990).

70. Contemporaneous objection rule as to evidence, instructions and closing argument examined. State v. Crabtree, 248 Kan. 33, 34, 805 P.2d 1 (1991).

71. Evidence needed to justify instruction on voluntary manslaughter in murder trial examined. State v. Hamons, 248 Kan. 51, 63, 805 P.2d 6 (1991).

72. Exception to general rules on lesser included offenses in felony murder cases noted. State v. Hobbs, 248 Kan. 342, 347, 807 P.2d 120 (1991).

73. Defense's failure to introduce positive testimony to prove version of homicide contrary to state's on lesser included offense question examined. State v. Mayberry, 248 Kan. 369, 385, 807 P.2d 86 (1991).

74. Felony-murder as not supported by underlying felony of aggravated assault examined. State v. Leonard, 248 Kan. 427, 807 P.2d 81 (1991).

75. Self-defense instruction in murder trial of inmate/defendants, limiting testimony concerning prior self-defense killing examined. State v. Wiggins, 248 Kan. 526, 808 P.2d 1383 (1991).

76. Evidence required for instruction on second-degree murder as lesser offense of attempted first-degree murder examined. State v. Dixon, 248 Kan. 776, 782, 811 P.2d 1153 (1991).

77. Admission of prior violent acts between defendant and victim/wife, photographs and videotape of victim/wife's body examined. State v. Hedger, 248 Kan. 815, 811 P.2d 1170 (1991).

78. Instructions on self-defense and lesser offenses, reasonableness of search, length of sentence examined. State v. Tyler, 251 Kan. 616, 619, 840 P.2d 413 (1992).

79. When instruction as lesser included offense of attempted first-degree murder appropriate examined. State v. Dixon, 252 Kan. 39, 42, 843 P.2d 172 (1992).

80. What circumstances justify refusal to instruct on lesser included offenses of premeditated murder examined. State v. Deavers, 252 Kan. 149, 152, 843 P.2d 695 (1992).

81. Conviction hereunder affirmed; admission of evidence of gang characteristics and association proper. State v. Tran, 252 Kan. 494, 495, 847 P.2d 680 (1993).

82. Conviction hereunder affirmed; no violation of constitutional or statutory right to speedy trial. State v. Green, 252 Kan. 548, 549, 847 P.2d 1208 (1993).

83. Sufficiency of evidence to support conviction examined; standard of review. State v. Edwards, 252 Kan. 860, 861, 867, 852 P.2d 98 (1993).

84. Constitutionality of instructions regarding "intent," admission of gruesome photographs, lesser included offense instruction examined. State v. Stone, 253 Kan. 105, 853 P.2d 662 (1993).

85. Admissibility of police opinion testimony as to defendant's guilt, use of gruesome photographs examined. State v. Steadman, 253 Kan. 297, 298, 855 P.2d 919 (1993).

86. Trial court's refusal to allow testimony of three unendorsed defense witnesses, failure to instruct on lesser included offenses examined. State v. Coleman, 253 Kan. 335, 343, 856 P.2d 121 (1993).

87. Requirement of an imminently dangerous situation before giving a defense-of-another instruction examined. State v. Hernandez, 253 Kan. 705, 706, 861 P.2d 814 (1993).

88. When the giving of an instruction on voluntary intoxication should be given examined. State v. Montano, 18 Kan. App. 2d 502, 855 P.2d 979 (1993).

89. Whether judge erred by failing to instruct jury on attempted second-degree murder as lesser included offense of attempted murder examined. State v. Gibbons, 256 Kan. 951, 956, 889 P.2d 772 (1995).

90. Court's failure to instruct jury on second-degree murder and voluntary manslaughter in first-degree murder trial affirmed. State v. Jones, 257 Kan. 856, 873, 896 P.2d 1077 (1995).

91. Crime of attempted second-degree murder not recognized in Kansas. State v. Shannon, 258 Kan. 425, 427, 905 P.2d 649 (1995).

92. Reckless second-degree murder is a lesser included offense of first-degree murder. State v. Pierce, 260 Kan. 859, 863, 927 P.2d 929 (1996).

93. Requires proof of specific intent; specific intent distinguished from general intent. State v. Esher, 22 Kan. App. 2d 779, 783, 922 P.2d 1123 (1996).

94. Trial court did not err in instructing jury regarding intent element of intentional second-degree murder. State v. Pope, 23 Kan. App. 2d 69, 72, 927 P.2d 503 (1996).

95. Evidence did not justify jury instruction on reckless second-degree murder as a lesser included offense of murder. State v. Clark, 261 Kan. 460, 465, 931 P.2d 664 (1997).

96. Depraved heart second-degree murder (K.S.A. 21-3402(b)) adequately distinguishable from reckless involuntary manslaughter (K.S.A. 21-3404) by requiring a higher degree of recklessness; therefor not void for vagueness. State v. Robinson, 261 Kan. 865, 866, 869, 934 P.2d 38 (1997).

97. Section is not unconstitutionally void for vagueness. State v. Mitchell, 23 Kan. App. 2d 413, 417, 420, 932 P.2d 1012 (1997).

98. Defendant not entitled to lesser included offense of voluntary manslaughter; no evidence of provocation in record. State v. Moncla, 262 Kan. 58, 73, 936 P.2d 727 (1997).

99. Instruction that killing not done in heat of passion or sudden passion proper where evidence requires voluntary manslaughter instruction. State v. Jackson, 262 Kan. 119, 127, 936 P.2d 761 (1997).

100. Trial court did not err in denying defendant's request for lesser included offense instruction in felony murder case. State v. Williams, 263 Kan. 134, 138, 947 P.2d 25 (1997).

101. Trial court ruling denying jury instructions on lesser included offenses to intentional second-degree murder upheld. State v. Bailey, 263 Kan. 685, 689, 952 P.2d 1289 (1998).

102. Malice is not an element of second-degree intentional murder. State v. McCown, 264 Kan. 655, 657, 957 P.2d 401 (1998).

103. Trial court failure to instruct jury on unintentional second-degree murder as a lesser included offense of premeditated murder affirmed. State v. Harris, 266 Kan. 270, 277, 970 P.2d 519 (1998).

104. Physician's conviction for murder of terminally ill patient reversed based on insufficiency of evidence. State v. Naramore, 25 Kan. App. 2d 302, 320, 965 P.2d 211 (1998).

105. In conviction of second-degree murder, no error in failing to instruct on reckless second-degree murder as lesser included offense. State v. Jones, 267 Kan. 627, 634, 984 P.2d 132 (1999).

106. Reckless second-degree murder conviction affirmed; defendant's three dogs killed 11 year old boy; defendant acted recklessly to extent it could be inferred defendant was extremely indifferent to value of human life. State v. Davidson, 267 Kan. 667, 683, 684, 987 P.2d 335 (1999).

107. Unintentional second-degree murder is lesser included offense of intentional second-degree murder. State v. Jones, 27 Kan. App. 2d 910, 8 P.3d 1282 (2000).

108. No error in court's refusing to instruct jury, declare mistrial or grant a new trial. State v. Smith, 271 Kan. 666, 24 P.3d 727 (2001).

109. Failure to give instruction on lesser included offense requires reversal of attempted second-degree murder conviction. State v. Cribbs, 29 Kan. App. 2d 919, 34 P.3d 76 (2001).

110. Defendant not responsible only if extraordinary intervening event supersedes defendant's act and becomes sole legal cause of death (alleged negligence of emergency room physicians); second degree murder conviction affirmed. State v. Kirby, 272 Kan. 1170, 39 P.3d 1 (2002).

111. Conviction of intentional second degree murder affirmed; no error in Court's refusal to instruct on voluntary manslaughter and involuntary manslaughter. State v. Bell, 273 Kan. 49, 41 P.3d 783 (2002).

112. Conviction for reckless second degree murder affirmed. State v. Cordray, 277 Kan. 43, 82 P.3d 503 (2003).

113. Conviction for "depraved heart" second-degree murder affirmed; offense requires reckless killing with extreme indifference to value of human life. State v. Doub, 32 Kan. App. 2d 1087, 95 P.3d 116 (2004).

114. Cited; imperfect self-defense relating to voluntary manslaughter not appropriate, when. State v. Carter, 284 Kan. 312, 326, 160 P.3d 457 (2007).

115. Attempted voluntary manslaughter is a legally viable crime in Kansas. State v. Gutierrez, 285 Kan. 332, 339, 172 P.3d 18 (2007).

116. Mentioned; defendant pled to attempted second degree unintentional murder, now a nonexistent crime; test discussed. McPherson v. State, 38 Kan. App. 2d 276, 284, 163 P.3d 1257 (2007).

117. Conviction hereunder; case involved downward departure sentence which appellate court reversed and defendant challenged. State v. Blackmon, 285 Kan. 719, 720, 176 P.3d 160 (2008).

118. Cited in case challenging failure to instruct on lesser included homicides and robbery; no error found. State v. Reid, 286 Kan. 494, 522, 186 P.3d 713 (2008).

119. Cited in discussion of premeditation; new trial ordered for failure to instruct on lesser included offense of second-degree murder. State v. Scaife, 286 Kan. 614, 619, 186 P.3d 755 (2008).

120. Cited; identical offense sentencing doctrine discussed, not applicable under case facts. State v. Warledo, 286 Kan. 927, 951, 956, 190 P.3d 937 (2008).

121. Cited; defendant required to prove timely appeal would have been sought had defendant been properly informed of appeal right. State v. Gill, 287 Kan. 289, 290, 196 P.3d 369 (2008).

122. Cited; no error in premeditated first-degree murder case in failing to instruct on lesser included offenses. State v. Jones, 287 Kan. 559, 572, 197 P.3d 815 (2008).

123. No equal protection violation in not providing DNA testing for intentional second-degree murder. State v. Salas, 289 Kan. 245, 210 P.3d 635 (2009).

124. Conviction affirmed; jury instruction thereon held no error. State v. Krider, 41 Kan. App. 2d 368, 202 P.3d 722 (2009).

125. Evidence held sufficient to convict defendant of unintentional second-degree murder. State v. Deal, 41 Kan. App. 2d 866, 206 P.3d 529 (2009).

126. Sufficient evidence is found to establish an unintentional but reckless second-degree murder under the facts of case. State v. Deal, 293 Kan. 872, 269 P.3d 1282 (2012).

127. The crimes of first-degree premeditated murder and second-degree intentional murder are not identical. State v. Astorga, 295 Kan. 339, 284 P.3d 279 (2012).

128. Identical offense doctrine does not apply to severity levels of the same offense according to facts of case. State v. Bridges, 297 Kan. 989, 306 P.3d 244 (2013).

129. Identical offense doctrine does not apply to severity levels of the same offense according to facts of case. State v. Friday, 297 Kan. 1023, 306 P.3d 265 (2013).


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