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21-3301.

History: L. 1969, ch. 180, § 21-3301; L. 1981, ch. 143, § 1; L. 1983, ch. 108, § 8; L. 1989, ch. 92, § 18; L. 1992, ch. 239, § 34; L. 1993, ch. 291, § 277; L. 2006, ch. 146, § 5; L. 2010, ch. 109, § 1; Repealed, L. 2011, ch. 30, § 288; July 1.

Source or Prior Law:

21-101.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

Use of evidence of prior convictions, Wendell F. Cowan, Jr., 12 W.L.J. 111 (1972).

Effects of Mandatory Sentencing Act (K.S.A. 21-4618), 26 K.L.R. 277, 286, 287 (1978).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Criminal Law," Robert A. Wason, 32 K.L.R. 395, 403, 405, 407, 408, 413 (1984).

"Expungement: Lies That Can Hurt You In and Out of Court," Steven K. O'Hern, 27 W.L.J. 574, 578, 586, 589, 598 (1988).

"Criminal Law: Multiplicity and the Independence of Aggravated Sexual Battery Under KAN. STAT. ANN. § 21-3107(2) [State v. Mason, 827 P.2d 748 (Kan. 1992)]," Lance Thaxton, 32 W.L.J. 290, 291 (1993).

"Modern Kansas Legislative Strategies: The Blackmail Gambit," Robert Drean, 35 W.L.J. 157, 158, 162 (1995).

"Criminalizing the Intentional or Reckless Exposure to HIV: A Wake-Up Call to Kansas," Amy M. Decker, 46 K.L.R. 305 (1998).

"Does Public Access to Sex Offender Registration Information Under the Kansas Sex Offender Registration Act Constitute Cruel and Unusual Punishment?[State v. Scott, 961 P.2d 667 (Kan.1998)]," Marti Paulsen, 38 W.L.J. 727 (1999).

"Methamphetamine, A Recipe for Disaster," Debra S. Peterson and R. Michael Jennings, 73 J.K.B.A. No. 9, 7, 46, 48 (2004).

"Relating Kansas Offenses," Tom Stacy, 56 K.L.R. 831 (2008).

Attorney General's Opinions:

Kansas criminal code; classification of crimes and penalties; effect of legislation providing for reduction of sentences. 84-57.

Assault; battery; prosecution for intentional exposure to HIV. 92-29.

Juveniles; collection of blood and saliva specimens; fingerprinting by KBI. 95-63.

CASE ANNOTATIONS

1. Attempted burglary and possession of burglary tools separate and distinct offenses; attempt sufficiently charged; not necessary to set forth all essential elements of crime attempted but not consummated. State v. Cory, 211 Kan. 528, 532, 506 P.2d 1115.

2. Evidence supportive of charge hereunder; conviction upheld. State v. Awad, 214 Kan. 499, 520 P.2d 1281.

3. Applied in determining that acquittal on charges of theft did not preclude prosecution for burglary and possession of burglary tools. State v. Pruitt, 216 Kan. 103, 106, 531 P.2d 860.

4. Applied; conviction of attempted theft of swine reversed; evidence insufficient to infer specific intent to steal. State v. Gobin, 216 Kan. 278, 280, 531 P.2d 16.

5. No error by trial court in failing to instruct on lesser included offense of attempted robbery when no evidence was presented to convict of such offenses. State v. Buggs, 219 Kan. 203, 206, 547 P.2d 720.

6. Conviction of attempted burglary affirmed; instructions upheld. State v. Wasinger, 220 Kan. 599, 556 P.2d 189.

7. Applied; evidence insufficient to support conviction of attempted felony theft; resentence ordered. State v. Moss, 221 Kan. 47, 50, 557 P.2d 1292.

8. Conviction hereunder affirmed; admissible evidence supported finding of value of merchandise. State v. Spray, 221 Kan. 67, 558 P.2d 129.

9. Acceptance of plea of nolo contendere to charge and finding of guilt considered a conviction even though defendant not sentenced. State v. Holmes, 222 Kan. 212, 563 P.2d 480.

10. Conviction of attempted rape reversed; failure to instruct on lesser offense of battery. State v. Arnold, 1 Kan. App. 2d 642, 645, 573 P.2d 1087. Reversed: 223 Kan. 715, 716, 717, 576 P.2d 651.

11. Aggravated battery not a lesser included offense of crime of attempted murder; conviction reversed. State v. Daniels, 223 Kan. 266, 271, 573 P.2d 607.

12. Failure to instruct hereunder in prosecution for theft by deception; new trial ordered. State v. Finch, 223 Kan. 398, 404, 573 P.2d 1048.

13. Conviction hereunder and of other crimes and sentence under K.S.A. 21-4618 affirmed. State v. Hatch and Smith, 223 Kan. 783, 576 P.2d 687.

14. Conviction hereunder reversed; charges dismissed as provided by K.S.A. 22-4401, IV (e). State v. Keener, 224 Kan. 100, 577 P.2d 1182.

15. Overt act toward consummation of crime element of attempt. State v. Sullivan, 224 Kan. 110, 122, 578 P.2d 1108.

16. Convictions hereunder affirmed; separate charges properly joined; in-custody statement of defendant admissible. State v. McGee, 224 Kan. 173, 578 P.2d 269.

17. Conviction hereunder as an aider and abettor affirmed; element of intent inferred from circumstantial evidence; standard of appellate review; abuse of judicial discretion in sentencing. State v. Goering, 225 Kan. 755, 756, 594 P.2d 194.

18. Conviction hereunder reversed; constitutional right to effective assistance of counsel; conflicting defenses. State v. West, 2 Kan. App. 2d 297, 578 P.2d 287.

19. Conviction hereunder; evidence sufficient to form basis for reasonable inference of guilt. State v. Words, 226 Kan. 59, 62, 596 P.2d 129.

20. Conviction hereunder upheld; mandatory sentencing under K.S.A. 21-4618 considered and applied. State v. Thompson, 3 Kan. App. 2d 426, 427, 429, 596 P.2d 174.

21. Conviction of theft by deception reversed; defendant granted new trial on attempted theft; trial judge failed to instruct thereon. State v. Saylor, 4 Kan. App. 2d 563, 564, 608 P.2d 421. Reversed: 228 Kan. 498, 618 P.2d 1166.

22. Trial court refusal to accept plea of guilty to felony charge not abuse of discretion. State v. Clanton, 5 Kan. App. 2d 77, 81, 612 P.2d 662.

23. Fact that accused previously retained counsel does not make inadmissible voluntary statement made by defendant in counsel's absence. State v. Costa, 228 Kan. 308, 309, 613 P.2d 1359.

24. Trial court's instructions not clearly erroneous; conviction of felony murder affirmed. State v. Hearron, 228 Kan. 693, 619 P.2d 812.

25. There was sufficient evidence that defendant used a firearm in perpetrating the crime; conviction affirmed. State v. Payton, 229 Kan. 106, 622 P.2d 651.

26. Attempted aggravated sodomy, aiding and abetting aggravated sodomy discussed; robbery incidental thereto. State v. Robinson, Lloyd & Clark, 229 Kan. 301, 302, 624 P.2d 964.

27. Joinder, severance, confessions, lesser included offenses, ordinary standards of medical practice, prosecutorial comments, change of venue all discussed in upholding conviction. State v. Shaffer, 229 Kan. 310, 311, 624 P.2d 440.

28. "Multiplicity" defined; single offense may not be divided into separate parts. State v. Garnes, 229 Kan. 368, 624 P.2d 448.

29. Providing appointed counsel with pre-sentence report, with instruction defendant be allowed to read same, not error. State v. Grantom, 229 Kan. 517, 625 P.2d 499.

30. Appeal of attempted burglary case; remanded for new sentence. State v. Bell, 6 Kan. App. 2d 573, 631 P.2d 254 (1981).

31. Mentioned; plea bargain; charge of attempted murder in connection with charge under K.S.A. 21-3401 not subject to mandatory sentence under K.S.A. 21-4618. Sutton v. State, 6 Kan. App. 2d 831, 832, 636 P.2d 187 (1981).

32. Conviction hereunder reversed; insufficient evidence of specific intent to commit rape. State v. Carr, 230 Kan. 322, 634 P.2d 1104 (1981).

33. Multiple charges involving three victims consolidated for trial. State v. Bagby, 231 Kan. 176, 642 P.2d 993 (1982).

34. No error in refusing instruction on attempted kidnapping; no distance required to constitute a taking. State v. Mahlandt, 231 Kan. 665, 671, 647 P.2d 1307 (1982).

35. Sentencing under K.S.A. 21-4618 applicable only to chapter 21, article 34 crimes and sex crimes. State v. Smith, 232 Kan. 284, 285, 654 P.2d 929 (1982).

36. Attempted conspiracy (criminal solicitation) not statutory crime prior to enactment of K.S.A. 21-3303. State v. Sexton, 232 Kan. 539, 540, 657 P.2d 43 (1983).

37. Paragraph (2) eliminates legal impossibility as a defense to an attempt charge. State v. Logan & Crom well, 232 Kan. 646, 656 P.2d 777 (1983).

38. Defendant need not always be convicted of crime he intends to facilitate by abduction to be convicted of kidnapping. State v. Chatmon, 234 Kan. 197, 206, 671 P.2d 531 (1983).

39. Evidence insufficient to warrant instruction on attempted kidnapping where evidence indicated kidnapping only. State v. Royal, 234 Kan. 218, 223, 670 P.2d 1337 (1983).

40. Not guilty plea may be consistent with defense of entrapment when defendant admits substantial involvement. State v. Rogers, 234 Kan. 629, 675 P.2d 71 (1984).

41. Where single, overt act occurred, convictions of attempted murder (K.S.A. 21-3401) and aggravated battery (K.S.A. 21-3414) multiplicitous. State v. Turbeville, 235 Kan. 993, 995, 686 P.2d 138 (1984).

42. Refusal to commit pursuant to K.S.A. 22-3430 not reviewable; sentence imposed under K.S.A. 21-4608 met criteria of K.S.A. 21-4606. State v. Adkins, 236 Kan. 259, 689 P.2d 880 (1984).

43. Certificate to practice law voluntarily surrendered; disbarred following conviction hereof and exhaustion of appeals. In re Wiswell, 236 Kan. 311, 691 P.2d 391 (1984).

44. New trial denied where newly discovered evidence (K.S.A. 22-3501) consisted of known witnesses and testimony defendant failed to use. State v. Littlejohn, 236 Kan. 497, 500, 503, 694 P.2d 403 (1985).

45. Conviction hereunder; sufficiency of evidence to support conviction. State v. Hanks, 236 Kan. 524, 525, 536, 694 P.2d 407 (1985).

46. Consecutive sentences not mandated by K.S.A. 21-4608(4) where defendant commits felony while on release awaiting trial. State v. Reed, 10 Kan. App. 2d 189, 694 P.2d 1329 (1985).

47. Accomplice testimony on prior crimes, criteria (K.S.A. 60-455); testimony of unavailable witness, question on incentive (K.S.A. 60-460(dj)(3)). State v. Sanford, 237 Kan. 312, 699 P.2d 506 (1985).

48. Conviction hereunder; separate trials, past alcohol/drug abuse records, post-Miranda statement, antagonism between counsel and voluntary intoxication discussed. State v. Falke, 237 Kan. 668, 669, 703 P.2d 1362 (1985).

49. Conviction hereunder; circumstances when consecutive sentences (K.S.A. 21-4608) required determined. State v. Reed, 237 Kan. 685, 686, 703 P.2d 756 (1985).

50. Conviction hereunder; refusal to order psychiatric examination for, and use of videotaped deposition of, victim discussed. State v. Wooldridge, 237 Kan. 737, 703 P.2d 1375 (1985).

51. Acceptance and validity of guilty plea (K.S.A. 22-3210) discussed; grounds to set aside reviewed and applied. State v. Snyder, 10 Kan. App. 2d 450, 456, 701 P.2d 969 (1985).

52. Convictions reversed; violation of sequestration order, without knowledge or connivance of defendant, insufficient reason to exclude alibi witness. State v. Hill, 10 Kan. App. 2d 607, 706 P.2d 472 (1985).

53. Conviction hereunder; evidence of prior crimes (K.S.A. 60-455), sufficiency of complaint affidavit, photographic evidence, trial consolidation discussed. State v. Breazeale, 238 Kan. 714, 714 P.2d 1356 (1986).

54. Conviction hereunder; insanity issue, diminished capacity, medical and nonexpert testimony examined. State v. Jackson, 238 Kan. 793, 714 P.2d 1368 (1986).

55. Attempted theft (K.S.A. 21-3701) conviction reversed; requirement that associate counsel (K.S.A. 19-717) be bound by pretrial discovery requirements (K.S.A. 22-3212) examined. State v. Dressel, 11 Kan. App. 2d 552, 729 P.2d 1245 (1986).

56. Severity of sentence, in-court identifications, photographic evidence of lineup examined. State v. Slansky, 239 Kan. 450, 720 P.2d 1054 (1986).

57. Differences between K.S.A. 22-3504 and 60-1507 examined. State v. Thomas, 239 Kan. 457, 720 P.2d 1059 (1986).

58. Statutory guidelines for acceptance of guilty plea (K.S.A. 22-3210) examined in K.S.A. 60-1507 proceeding. Noble v. State, 240 Kan. 162, 727 P.2d 473 (1986).

59. Discovery from complaining witness (K.S.A. 22-3212) and attorney hired to assist prosecution (K.S.A. 19-717) examined. State v. Dressel, 241 Kan. 426, 738 P.2d 830 (1987): Reversing, 11 Kan. App. 2d 552, 729 P.2d 1245 (1986).

60. Cited; phrase "any interest" in arson statute (K.S.A. 21-3718) as including leasehold interest in real property noted. State v. Johnson, 12 Kan. App. 2d 239, 243, 738 P.2d 872 (1987).

61. Aggravated assault (K.S.A. 21-3410) not lesser included offense (K.S.A. 21-3107) of attempted second degree murder (K.S.A. 21-3402). State v. Daniels, 12 Kan. App. 2d 479, 481, 484, 753 P.2d 300 (1987).

62. Criteria to consider in sentencing (K.S.A. 21-4606), specific findings required before imposing fine examined. State v. McGlothlin, 242 Kan. 437, 747 P.2d 1335 (1988).

63. Cited; K.S.A. 60-1507 question on jurisdiction to convict of aggravated sexual battery (K.S.A. 21-3518) on information charging rape (K.S.A. 21-3502) examined. Patterson v. State, 12 Kan. App. 2d 731, 754 P.2d 1207 (1988).

64. Cited; evidence of death occurring within res gestae of attempted burglary examined. State v. Chism, 243 Kan. 484, 489, 759 P.2d 105 (1988).

65. Conviction affirmed; amendment of complaint, information or indictment before verdict or finding, admission of incriminating statements examined. State v. Rasch, 243 Kan. 495, 758 P.2d 214 (1988).

66. Alibi (K.S.A. 22-3218) and insanity (K.S.A. 22-3219) as only circumstances requiring notice of intended defense examined; voluntary intoxication (K.S.A. 21-3218) distinguished. In re Habeas Corpus Petition of Mason, 245 Kan. 111, 112, 775 P.2d 179 (1989).

67. Evidence sufficient to instruct on lesser included count (K.S.A. 21-3107) of attempted rape (K.S.A. 21-3501, 21-3502) examined. State v. Hammon, 245 Kan. 450, 453, 781 P.2d 1063 (1989).

68. Conviction of attempted rape (K.S.A. 21-3502) without evidence of attempted penetration examined. State v. Gonzales, 245 Kan. 691, 697, 783 P.2d 1239 (1989).

69. K.S.A. 60-1507 as method to seek new trial for newly discovered evidence after limitation in K.S.A. 22-3501 has run examined. State v. Bradley, 246 Kan. 316, 787 P.2d 706 (1990).

70. Amendments to sentencing statutes regarding modification (K.S.A. 21-4603(3)(a)) and presumption of probation (K.S.A. 21-4606a) as substantive and applicable prospectively determined. State v. Sylva, 14 Kan. App. 2d 609, 610, 795 P.2d 947 (1990); affirmed 248 Kan. 118, 804 P.2d 967 (1991).

71. Postarrest/Miranda silence, other crimes evidence, inquiry why prior complaining witnesses failed to pursue retrials examined. State v. Searles, 246 Kan. 567, 793 P.2d 724 (1990).

72. Employee as not assuming risk of rape at place of employment noted, notwithstanding knowledge of risk. Perkins v. Spivey, 911 F.2d 22 (1990).

73. Pellet or BB gun found to be dangerous weapon in attempted aggravated robbery (K.S.A. 21-3427) trial. State v. Wagner, 248 Kan. 240, 241, 244, 807 P.2d 139 (1991).

74. Attempted aggravated criminal sodomy as underlying felony in felony murder question examined. State v. William, 248 Kan. 389, 400, 807 P.2d 1292 (1991).

75. Evidence required for instructions on lesser degrees of homicide and aggravated battery as lesser offense of attempted first-degree murder examined. State v. Dixon, 248 Kan. 776, 778, 781, 811 P.2d 1153 (1991).

76. Informant's unsworn statement accompanying sworn application for search warrant, stale information, exception to exclusionary rule examined. State v. Hemme, 15 Kan. App. 2d 198, 806 P.2d 472 (1991).

77. Aggravated sexual battery not lesser included crime of attempted aggravated sodomy or attempted rape; test for determining multiplicitous charges. State v. Mason, 250 Kan. 393, 394, 827 P.2d 748 (1992).

78. Instructions on alternate lesser offenses, impossibility and terroristic threats examined; attempted murder evidence, sentence imposed examined. State v. DeHerrera, 251 Kan. 143, 144, 834 P.2d 918 (1992).

79. Evidence supporting determination to try juvenile as adult (K.S.A. 38-1636) upheld; admission of confession, evidence of gang membership examined. State v. Hooks, 251 Kan. 755, 756, 840 P.2d 483 (1992).

80. Exclusion of expert testimony, withholding impeachment evidence, absence at in camera hearing, cross-examination rights examined. State v. Humphrey, 252 Kan. 6, 8, 845 P.2d 592 (1992).

81. When instruction on lesser included offenses of attempted first-degree murder appropriate examined. State v. Dixon, 252 Kan. 39, 40, 843 P.2d 172 (1992).

82. Trial court's error noted in either not granting probation as recommended by TCF or making findings required by K.S.A. 21-4603. State v. Dugan, 17 Kan. App. 2d 340, 836 P.2d 584 (1992).

83. Jury selection, confession, gang membership, rape shield statute, photographic exhibits, trial misconduct, instructions, peremptory challenge, hard 40 statute, examined. State v. Walker, 252 Kan. 279, 281, 845 P.2d 1 (1993).

84. Failure to instruct on attempted indecent liberties as lesser offense of attempted rape not error under facts herein. State v. Cahill, 252 Kan. 309, 311, 845 P.2d 624 (1993).

85. Failure to instruct on lesser offenses of first-degree murder, failure to suppress confession examined. State v. McBroom, 252 Kan. 376, 377, 845 P.2d 654 (1993).

86. Conviction hereunder reversed; trial court erred in excluding evidence of lack of veracity by complaining witness. State v. Lewis, 252 Kan. 535, 847 P.2d 690 (1993).

87. No reversible error in giving erroneous instruction when defendant's rights not prejudiced. State v. Thomas, 252 Kan. 564, 576, 847 P.2d 1219 (1993).

88. Conviction affirmed; ex parte conversation between judge and ill juror, substitution of alternate juror, intoxication of defendant instructions and burden of proof addressed. State v. Minski, 252 Kan. 806, 807, 850 P.2d 809 (1993).

89. Requirement that trial court accept plea and make finding of guilt for conviction to stand examined. State v. Morse, 18 Kan. App. 2d 268, 855 P.2d 87 (1993).

90. Cited in holding trial court permitted to consider maximum penalties applicable for all convictions when committing to state mental institution (K.S.A. 22-3430). State v. Finley, 18 Kan. App. 2d 419, 420, 854 P.2d 315 (1993).

91. Whether codefendant who received harsher sentence than other codefendant furnished record showing prejudicial error examined. State v. Castoreno, 255 Kan. 401, 412, 874 P.2d 1173 (1994).

92. Whether instruction of attempted felony-murder diminished state's burden to prove specific intent to kill examined. State v. Robinson, 256 Kan. 133, 137, 883 P.2d 764 (1994).

93. Whether court erred by failing to instruct on attempted simple burglary as a lesser included offense of attempted aggravated burglary examined. State v. Watson, 256 Kan. 396, 398, 399, 885 P.2d 1226 (1994).

94. Cited; whether state may try juvenile prosecuted as adult on charges not previously raised in juvenile proceeding examined. State v. Randolph, 19 Kan. App. 2d 730, 731, 876 P.2d 177 (1994).

95. Whether court erred by converting attempt to engage in indecent liberties with a child to severity level 5 examined. State v. Ward, 20 Kan. App. 2d 238, 241, 886 P.2d 890 (1994).

96. Whether defendant's attempted bank robbery conviction may be used to increase sentence under habitual criminal act examined. State v. Brinkley, 256 Kan. 808, 821, 888 P.2d 819 (1995).

97. Whether judge erred by failing to instruct jury on attempted second-degree murder as lesser included offense of attempted murder examined. State v. Gibbons, 256 Kan. 951, 956, 889 P.2d 772 (1995).

98. The crime of attempted involuntary manslaughter not recognized in Kansas. State v. Collins, 257 Kan. 408, 418, 419, 893 P.2d 217 (1995).

99. Whether defendant sentenced after KSGA (K.S.A. 21-4701 et seq.) enactment for crimes committed before enactment is denied equal protection by preclusion of sentencing guideline retroactivity examined. State v. Fierro, 257 Kan. 639, 656, 895 P.2d 186 (1995).

100. Whether defendant's conviction for attempted aggravated assault must be reversed because no such crime existed at time examined. State v. Martinez, 20 Kan. App. 2d 824, 829, 893 P.2d 267 (1995).

101. Failure to assign crime severity level to attempted drug felonies similar to attempted nondrug felonies not ambiguous. State v. Alires, 21 Kan. App. 2d 139, 895 P.2d 1267 (1995).

102. Attempted murder resulting in death of unintended victim is independent collateral felony under felony-murder rule. State v. Gayden, 259 Kan. 69, 73, 910 P.2d 826 (1996).

103. Failure to define offense defendant was charged with attempting to commit rendered amended complaint jurisdictionally defective. State v. Crane, 260 Kan. 208, 222, 918 P.2d 1256 (1996).

104. Requires proof of specific intent; specific intent distinguished from general intent. State v. Esher, 22 Kan. App. 2d 779, 782, 922 P.2d 1123 (1996).

105. Prosecution failure to include element of attempted robbery ruled harmless error. State v. Ford, 23 Kan. App. 2d 248, 255, 930 P.2d 1089 (1996).

106. Evidence did not justify jury instruction on reckless attempted second-degree murder as a lesser included offense of murder. State v. Clark, 261 Kan. 460, 466, 931 P.2d 664 (1997).

107. Amount and type of evidence necessary to support attempted rape or aggravated criminal sodomy in felony murder case reviewed. State v. Salcido-Corral, 262 Kan. 392, 398, 940 P.2d 11 (1997).

108. Defendant's guilty plea to attempted aggravated assault was not erroneous as a plea to nonexistent crime. Spencer v. State, 264 Kan. 4, 7, 954 P.2d 1088 (1998).

109. Trial court denial of jury instruction regarding voluntary abandonment upheld. State v. Morfitt, 25 Kan. App. 2d 8, 19, 956 P.2d 719 (1998).

110. No error in prosecuting 14 year old defendant as adult for rape but upon conviction of lesser included offense of attempted rape he is to be sentenced as a juvenile offender. State v. Perez, 267 Kan. 543, 544, 546, 987 P.2d 1055 (1999).

111. Defendant cannot claim factual or legal impossibility to charge of attempt; fourteen year old "Tara" on internet chat line is Wichita police officer. State v. Jones, 271 Kan. 201, 21 P.3d 596 (2001).

112. No error in court's refusing to instruct jury, declare mistrial or grant a new trial. State v. Smith, 271 Kan. 666, 24 P.3d 727 (2001).

113. Offense of manufacturing controlled substance is properly charged under K.S.A. 65-4159; attempt to manufacture is charged under K.S.A. 21-3301. State v. Martens, 29 Kan. App. 2d 361, 28 P.3d 408 (2001).

114. Upward departure sentence is not supported by fact defendant refused to confess or invoked privilege against self-incrimination. State v. Baum, 29 Kan. App. 2d 1083, 35 P.3d 944 (2001).

115. Facts support charge of attempted manufacture of methamphetamine; appellate court's review of evidence is de novo. State v. Sheikh, 30 Kan. App. 2d 188, 41 P.3d 290 (2001).

116. Manufacturing a controlled substance is charged under K.S.A. 65-4159, but an attempt to manufacture must be charged under K.S.A. 21-3301. State v. Martens, 273 Kan. 179, 54 P.3d 960 (2002).

117. Manufacturing a controlled substance is charged under K.S.A. 65-4159, but attempt to manufacture must be charged under K.S.A. 21-3301. State v. Peterson, 273 Kan. 217, 42 P.3d 137 (2002).

118. Information defective as to crime of conspiracy, sufficient as to crime of attempt. State v. Sweat, 30 Kan. App. 2d 756, 49 P.3d 8 (2002).

119. Conviction reversed as state failed to prove anhydrous ammonia was not in state approved container. State v. McAdam, 31 Kan. App. 2d 436, 66 P.3d 252 (2003).

120. Driving vehicle to pick up child held overt act required to support conviction for attempted rape. State v. Peterman 280 Kan. 56, 118 P.3d 1267 (2004).

121. Separate attempted first-degree murder charges not multiplicitous under facts; two occasions within 30-minute period. State v. Hankerson, 34 Kan. App. 2d 629, 122 P.3d 408 (2005).

122. Upon conviction of attempt to manufacture methamphetamine under K.S.A. 65-4159, six-month sentence reduction provided in K.S.A. 21-3301 applies as defendant must be sentenced under lesser penalty provisions of K.S.A. 65-4161. State v. Herbison, 34 Kan. App. 2d 709, 123 P.3d 561 (2005).

123. Attempted manufacture of methamphetamine not identical to possession of drug paraphernalia with intent to manufacture. State v. Fanning, 281 Kan. 1176, 1184, 135 P.3d 1067 (2006).

124. Sufficiently significant circumstances and evidence existed for rational factfinder to find defendant guilty of charges. State v. Moody, 35 Kan. App. 2d 547, 554, 555, 556, 132 P.3d 985 (2006).

125. Aggravated battery is not a lesser included crime of attempted first-degree murder. State v. Gaither, 283 Kan. 671, 692, 156 P.3d 602 (2007).

126. Three elements of an attempt crime discussed. Swenson v. State, 284 Kan. 931, 169 P.3d 298 (2007).

127. Mentioned in discussion of attempted DUI; evidence supported the charge of attempt to operate vehicle. State v. Stevens, 285 Kan. 307, 315, 318, 172 P.3d 570 (2007).

128. Attempted voluntary manslaughter is a legally viable crime in Kansas. State v. Gutierrez, 285 Kan. 332, 339, 172 P.3d 18 (2007).

129. Mentioned; defendant pled to attempted second degree unintentional murder, now a nonexistent crime; test discussed. McPherson v. State, 38 Kan. App. 2d 276, 284, 163 P.3d 1257 (2007).

130. District court decision to treat attempted possession of cocaine as a felony drug offense, no error. U.S. v. Huskey, 502 F.3d 1196, 1198 (2007).

131. Convictions hereunder upheld; suppression of evidence denied based on consent to search by another resident. State v. Ransom, 289 Kan. 373, 212 P.3d 203 (2009).

132. Ample evidence supported defendant's conviction for attempted first-degree murder. State v. Mendoza, 41 Kan. App. 2d 996, 207 P.3d 1072 (2009).

133. Probable cause for search found in case involving drug charges, based upon smell and plain view of paraphernalia. State v. Ulrey, 41 Kan. App. 2d 1052, 208 P.3d 317 (2009).

134. One conviction for rape reversed for failure to instruct on attempted rape. State v. Gaona, 41 Kan. App. 2d 1064, 208 P.3d 308 (2009).

135. State not required to prove elements of attempt under K.S.A. 21-3301 for aggravated intimidation of witness under K.S.A. 21-3833(a)(1). State v. Quinones, 42 Kan. App. 2d 48, 208 P.3d 335 (2009).

136. Conviction reversed based on violation of order in limine, a Doyle v. Ohio violation and improper jury instruction. State v. Pruitt, 42 Kan. App. 2d 166, 211 P.3d 166 (2009).

137. Conflicting statutory provisions prescribing different sentences for criminal offense, rule of leniency applicable. State v. Horn, 288 Kan. 690, 206 P.3d 526 (2009).

138. Starting point in sentencing is mandated by the attempt statute; rule of lenity used to resolve statutory conflict in favor of defendant. State v. Malmstrom, 291 Kan. 876, 249 P.3d 1 (2011).

139. Attempting to operate a vehicle, as an alternative means of unlawfully driving under the influence, is not defined and governed by statute. State v. Perkins, 46 Kan. App. 2d 121, 257 P.3d 1283 (2011).

140. The court is not required to order drug treatment for a violation of K.S.A. 21-3301. State v. Perry-Coutcher, 45 Kan. App. 2d 911, 254 P.3d 556 (2011).


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