KANSAS OFFICE of
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33-106. Specific cases where writing required. No action shall be brought whereby to charge a party upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another person; or to charge any executor or administrator upon any special promise to answer damages out of his own estate; or to charge any person upon any agreement made upon consideration of marriage; or upon any contract for the sale of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or any interest in or concerning them; or upon any agreement that is not to be performed within the space of one year from the making thereof, unless the agreement upon which such action shall be brought, or some memorandum or note thereof, shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged therewith, or some other person thereunto by him or her lawfully authorized in writing.

History: G.S. 1868, ch. 43, § 6; L. 1905, ch. 266, § 1; March 21; R.S. 1923, 33-106.

Law Review and Bar Journal References:

Oil and gas transactions, effect on, 9 J.B.A.K. 129-137 (1940).

Nelson v. Schoonover, 89 K. 388, 131 P. 147 discussed in article on "Joint and Mutual Wills," William A. Smith, 1946 J.C.B. 3, 5.

Discussed in detail in 1953-55 survey of Kansas law, Earl B. Shurtz, 4 K.L.R. 185, 187, 188 (1955).

1955-56 survey of Kansas law, Earl B. Shurtz, 5 K.L.R. 210, 222 (1956).

Adequacy of business records, Denmar A. Cope, 4 K.L.R. 512, 527 (1956).

Mentioned in note, 8 K.L.R. 149, 150 (1959); 8 K.L.R. 470, 471 (1960).

Survey of real property and future interests, James K. Logan and N. William Hines, Jr., 10 K.L.R. 296 (1961).

"The Use of Arbitration in Settling Disputes Involving Real Property," Robert G. Meiners, 10 K.L.R. 420 (1962).

UCC and law of contracts, William G. Zimmerman, 14 K.L.R. 509, 512, 513 (1966).

Effect of section on validity of oral agreements discussed, John C. Frieden, 7 W.L.J. 110, 114 (1967).

Examined in survey of Kansas contract law (1967-1969), 18 K.L.R. 401, 407 (1970).

Admissibility of parol evidence to overcome statute of frauds requirement of completeness discussed in survey of Kansas contract law, 21 K.L.R. 137, 151 (1972).

Use of estoppel to avoid statute discussed in note, 26 K.L.R. 327 (1978).

"Survey of Kansas Law: Real and Personal Property," Deanell R. Tacha, 27 K.L.R. 283, 286 (1979).

"Contracts Interaction Between the Statute of Frauds and Promissory Estoppel in Kansas," Quentin E. Kurtz, 30 K.L.R. 330, 332 (1982).

"Will Substitutes in Kansas," Jana J. Deines and Michael E. McMahon, 23 W.L.J. 132, 134 (1983).

"Kansas Farmland Lease Law," Sam Brownback, Ted T. Svitavsky, 54 J.K.B.A. 201, 202 (1985).

"Rights of Kansas Non-Union Employees Against Unjust Termination—Where Are We Now?" William C. Nulton, 54 J.K.B.A. 237, 245 (1985).

"Kansas Legislation Governing Credit Agreements Of Financial Institutions," George L. Calvert III, 59 J.K.B.A. No. 2, 19, 21 (1990).

"What is Mine is Mine and Not Yours: Antenuptial and Postnuptial Agreements in Kansas," Nathalie C. Elliott, J.K.T.L.A. Vol. XVIII, No. 2, 23 (1994).

"What's your authority? And other issues in oral settlement agreements," Daniel E. Blegen, 69 J.K.B.A. No. 5, 26 (2000).

"Shareholder Duties in Closely Held Kansas Corporations After Hunt v. Data Management Resources," Robert Drumm, 49 K.L.R. 1159 (2001).

"Land Description Errors: Recognition, Avoidance and Consequences," John C. Peck and Christopher L. Steadham, 78 J.K.B.A. No. 8, 21 (2009).

CASE ANNOTATIONS

A. Promise to answer for debt of another (1 to 37):

1. One cannot be held for debt of another without written agreement. Van Pelt v. Pump Co., 4 Kan. App. 568, 45 P. 1104.

2. Oral promise to pay for goods if purchaser does not is void. Newman v. Newman, 7 Kan. App. 77, 52 P. 908.

3. Agreement by purchaser to pay price to third person not within statute. Grant v. Pendery, 15 Kan. 236, 242; Patton v. Mills, 21 Kan. 163, 170.

4. Parol promises by bank to collect drafts and apply proceeds are binding. Harrison v. Simpson, 17 Kan. 508.

5. Promise to debtor to pay creditor is not within statute. Center v. McQuesten, 18 Kan. 476; Fisher v. Spillman, 85 Kan. 552, 118 P. 65.

6. Oral promise by father to pay for horse killed by son. Baker v. Morris, 33 Kan. 580, 7 P. 267.

7. Oral contract by purchaser to pay price to third person is binding. Mfg. Co. v. Burrows, 40 Kan. 361, 19 P. 809.

8. Verbal acceptance of deed reciting assumption of debt is binding. Neiswanger v. McClellan, 45 Kan. 599, 26 P. 18.

9. Verbal promise void unless substituted for original liability. Brant v. Johnson, 46 Kan. 389, 396, 26 P. 735.

10. Verbal authority to husband to sign wife's notes is binding. Arnold v. Hopper, 77 Kan. 819, 91 P. 76.

11. Assumption of debt may be original or collateral undertaking. Wagon Co. v. Wilson, 79 Kan. 633, 101 P. 4.

12. Father held liable for legal services performed for son. Nobel v. Fisher, 96 Kan. 247, 150 P. 575.

13. Oral promise by vendee to pay vendor of seller. Coal Co. v. Tompkins, 98 Kan. 495, 158 P. 1106.

14. Original undertaking to pay debt is not within statute. Johnson v. Huffaker, 99 Kan. 466, 162 P. 1150.

15. Assumption by grantee of encumbrance is not within statute. McAndrew v. Sowell, 100 Kan. 47, 48, 163 P. 653.

16. Statute forbids action on all mere oral promises to pay. Barbour v. Campbell, 101 Kan. 616, 617, 168 P. 879.

17. Oral promise unenforceable here, though valid in state where made. Barbour v. Campbell, 101 Kan. 616, 617, 168 P. 879.

18. Verbal contract within statute no defense to legal demand. Jones v. Bank, 103 Kan. 297, 299, 173 P. 977.

19. Original oral promise to pay for goods furnished another is actionable. Ezell v. Butcher, 104 Kan. 465, 179 P. 332.

20. Independent parol promise to pay debt of another is binding. Gestenslager v. Rixon, 107 Kan. 623, 193 P. 184.

21. Promise to pay own debt to substituted creditor not within statute. Smith v. Investment Co., 112 Kan. 201, 210 P. 477.

22. Evidence sufficient to hold father liable on son's debt. State Bank v. Murphy, 115 Kan. 350, 223 P. 486.

23. Answer in collateral proceedings not in evidence cannot be read to jury. National Bank v. Jucksch, 115 Kan. 762, 225 P. 111.

24. Creditor's oral promise to accept debtor's property in trust enforceable. Hines v. Roberts Bros., 117 Kan. 589, 592, 232 P. 1050.

25. Agreement constituted original contract not within statute. Hoag v. Boyle, 125 Kan. 436, 265 P. 61.

26. Subscription to corporate stock for payment of debts not within act. Thomas County Co-op. Business Ass'n v. Pearson, 130 Kan. 622, 623, 287 P. 242.

27. Lease requiring third person to pay rent orally agreed to, unenforceable, Sturm v. Continental Oil Co., 131 Kan. 518, 292 P. 774.

28. Under facts not a promise to answer for debt of another, so act does not apply. Carpenter v. Aldridge, 133 Kan. 465, 466, 300 P. 1065.

29. Evidence held not to establish debt of another. Voiland Printing Co. v. Christman, 139 Kan. 289, 290, 31 P.2d 17.

30. Promise made for main benefit of promisor not within statute. Allen v. Turner, 152 Kan. 590, 595, 106 P.2d 715.

31. Administrator's promise made for main benefit of himself not within statute. Allen v. Turner, 152 Kan. 590, 595, 106 P.2d 715.

32. Main purpose of promise to subserve promisor; not within statute. McCarthy v. Sink, 152 Kan. 659, 660, 669, 107 P.2d 790.

33. Oral agreement for own advantage and good consideration valid. Olson v. Frazer, 154 Kan. 310, 311, 313, 118 P.2d 505.

34. Contract of guaranty, which is complete in itself, cannot be explained by parol evidence. Failing Co. v. Cardwell Investment Co., 190 Kan. 509, 516, 376 P.2d 892.

35. Where purpose of the promise is to subserve promisor contract not within statute. Mastic Tile Div., Ruberoid Co. v. Moore Associates, 191 Kan. 266, 268, 269, 380 P.2d 376.

36. Section held not be include sale and purchase of chattels. Stewart v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 49 F.2d 987, 991.

37. Obligation of oil lease obtained by corporation's promoters held corporation's obligation, not debt of another. Wilson v. Harburney Oil Co., 89 F.2d 211, 213.

B. Agreements in consideration of marriage (40 to 52):

40. Marriage is sufficient consideration for antenuptial contract. Hafer v. Hafer, 33 Kan. 449, 6 P. 537.

41. Reasonable and equitable marriage settlements are valid. Neddo v. Neddo, 56 Kan. 507, 511, 44 P. 1.

42. Marriage settlements encouraging separation are void. Neddo v. Neddo, 56 Kan. 507, 44 P. 1.

43. Executed parol agreement in consideration of marriage is binding. Weld v. Weld, 71 Kan. 622, 623, 81 P. 183.

44. Terms of contract may be shown by separate writings. Schneider v. Anderson, 75 Kan. 11, 13, 88 P. 525.

45. Executed parol antenuptial contract is binding. Longhofer v. Herbel, 83 Kan. 278, 111 P. 483; Knights of Pythias v. Ferrel, 83 Kan. 491, 112 P. 155; Rice v. Randolph, 111 Kan. 73, 206 P. 314.

46. Oral antenuptial contract reduced to writing after marriage held binding. Eberhardt v. Rath, 89 Kan. 329, 331, 131 P. 604.

47. Part performance insufficient to render oral antenuptial agreement binding. Breen v. Davies, 99 Kan. 110, 160 P. 997.

48. Statute does not render verbal contracts void, but unenforceable. Rice v. Randolph, 111 Kan. 73, 206 P. 314.

49. Statute is not available to third persons not privies. Rice v. Randolph, 111 Kan. 73, 206 P. 314.

50. Antenuptial agreements must be in writing. Hoard v. Jones, 119 Kan. 138, 153, 237 P. 888, 895.

51. Oral promise to devise to third person in consideration of marriage void. Aiken v. English, 131 Kan. 226, 229, 289 P. 464.

52. Agreement made after marriage determined upon not in consideration of marriage. In re Estate of Pallister, 159 Kan. 7, 15, 152 P.2d 61.

C. Agreements for sale of land (54 to 210):

54. Transactions between parent and child considered. McDowell v. Miller, 1 Kan. App. 666, 42 P. 402.

55. Mortgage cannot be varied by oral declaration. Bell v. Coffin, 2 Kan. App. 337, 43 P. 861.

56. Section does not cover estates created by operation of law. Moore v. Wade, 8 Kan. 380, 387.

57. Part payment and improvements render agreement enforceable. Edwards v. Fry, 9 Kan. 417.

58. Section is inapplicable to resulting trusts. Franklin v. Colley, 10 Kan. 260, 263; Rose v. Hayden, 35 Kan. 106, 111, 10 P. 554; Rayl v. Rayl, 58 Kan. 585, 588, 50 P. 501; Garten v. Trobridge, 80 Kan. 720, 104 P. 1067; Goss v. Rothrock, 102 Kan. 272, 274, 169 P. 1161; Duncan v. Johnson, 89 Kan. 21, 130 P. 655; Goodrich v. Wilson, 106 Kan. 452, 454, 188 P. 225; Kindig v. Richardson, 108 Kan. 218, 194 P. 920.

59. Partially performed oral contract must be definitely proved to avoid statute. Long v. Duncan, 10 Kan. 294.

60. Part payment, possession and improvements validate agreement. Gregg v. Hamilton, 12 Kan. 333.

61. Sale of growing grass must be in writing. Powers v. Clarkson, 17 Kan. 218; Smith v. Leighton, 38 Kan. 544, 17 P. 52; Ross v. Cook, 71 Kan. 117, 80 P. 38.

62. Parol contract for surrender of title papers is void. Carr v. Williams, 17 Kan. 575, 582. Overruled: Ely v. Jones, 101 Kan. 572, 168 P. 1102.

63. Express trust must be in writing. Brake v. Ballou, 19 Kan. 397, 400; Engelbrecht v. Herrington, 103 Kan. 21, 23, 172 P. 715.

64. Verbal lease for one year to commence in future is void. Wolf v. Dozer, 22 Kan. 436.

65. Contract for trade of bank stock for real estate within section. Becker v. Mason, 30 Kan. 697, 2 P. 850.

66. Parol lease for six years is void. Bard v. Elston, 31 Kan. 274, 1 P. 565.

67. Promise to leave property to party for care and work within statute. Baldwin v. Squier, 31 Kan. 283, 1 P. 591.

68. Written contract should describe the land sold with certainty. Hollis v. Burgess, 37 Kan. 487, 15 P. 536.

69. Memorandum not binding unless signed by parties to agreement. Ross v. Allen, 45 Kan. 231, 241, 25 Kan. 570; Guthrie v. Anderson, 47 Kan. 383, 28 P. 164.

70. Principal not bound by giving agent oral consent to sign. Deiderick v. Alexander, 58 Kan. 56, 61, 48 P. 594.

71. Oral acceptance of letter offer and part performance make binding contract. Bogle v. Jarvis, 58 Kan. 76, 48 P. 558.

72. Letter to third person describing land and admitting payment sufficient. Miller v. Railroad Co., 58 Kan. 189, 48 P. 853.

73. Parol partnership for purchase and sale of land held valid. Jones v. Davies, 60 Kan. 309, 56 P. 484.

74. Part performance validates parol gift of land. Schwindt v. Schwindt, 61 Kan. 377, 59 P. 647.

75. Parol grant of water power held valid. Johnston v. Bowersock, 62 Kan. 148, 155, 61 P. 740.

76. Written agreement to devise lands is enforceable against heirs. Newton v. Lyon, 62 Kan. 306, 62 P. 1000.

77. Execution, without delivery, of deed does not bind parol vendee. Schultz v. Pinson, 63 Kan. 38, 64 P. 963.

78. Part performance held to validate agreement to convey to grandson. Gilmore v. Asbury, 64 Kan. 383, 388, 67 P. 864.

79. Sufficiency of possession as part performance considered. Hartshorn v. Smart, 67 Kan. 543, 73 P. 73; O'Brien v. Foulke, 69 Kan. 475, 77 P. 103; Baldwin v. Baldwin, 73 Kan. 39, 84 P. 568; Taylor v. Taylor, 79 Kan. 161, 99 P. 814.

80. Breach of oral agreement is not actionable in damages. Leis v. Potter, 68 Kan. 117, 74 P. 622.

81. Written agreement may be executed by parol compromise. Hill v. Maxwell, 71 Kan. 72, 79 P. 1088; Benton v. Magee, 75 Kan. 562, 89 P. 902.

82. Cutting part of grass under oral sale is not part performance. Ross v. Cook, 71 Kan. 117, 80 P. 38.

83. Use of easement granted by parol is part performance. Hardcastle & Kenyon v. Holmes, 71 Kan. 860, 80 P. 962.

84. Deed may be shown by parol to be a mortgage. Abrams v. Abrams, 74 Kan. 888, 88 P. 70.

85. Written contract not disclosing principal held nonenforceable against him. Mertz v. Hubbard, 75 Kan. 1, 2, 88 P. 529.

86. Parol mining lease is revocable at will. McCullagh v. Rains, 75 Kan. 458, 89 P. 1041.

87. Written lease may be modified by parol as to payment of rent. Wilson v. Gas Co., 75 Kan. 499, 89 P. 897.

88. Agent cannot bind principal, in sale contract, without written authority. Brown v. Gilpin, 75 Kan. 773, 90 P. 267.

89. Parol offer of school site is binding after building erected. Dyer v. School District, 76 Kan. 889, 92 P. 1122.

90. Oral agreement for will, executed by beneficiary, is enforceable. Bichel v. Oliver, 77 Kan. 696, 95 P. 396.

91. Voluntary performance renders parol agreement binding. Randolph v. Wilhite, 78 Kan. 355, 365, 96 P. 492.

92. Statute is inapplicable to executed agreements. James v. Manning, 79 Kan. 830, 101 P. 628; Edwards v. Brinkerhoff, 85 Kan. 67, 71, 116 P. 222.

93. Acceptance of deed reciting assumption of debt binds grantee therefor. Hendricks v. Brooks, 89 Kan. 1, 101 P. 622.

94. Parol boundary agreements followed by possession are binding. Steinhilber v. Holmes, 68 Kan. 607, 75 P. 1019; Parks v. Baker, 81 Kan. 351, 105 P. 439; Edwards v. Fleming, 83 Kan. 653, 663, 112 P. 836; Kastner v. Baker, 92 Kan. 26, 28, 139 P. 1189.

95. Parol sale of specific quantity to be selected by vendor. Peckham v. Lane, 81 Kan. 489, 106 P. 464.

96. Parol division fence agreement held valid. McAfee v. Walker, 82 Kan. 182, 183, 107 P. 637.

97. Principle of part performance stated. Baldridge v. Centgraf, 82 Kan. 240, 108 P. 83.

98. Mere possession held insufficient part performance. Baldridge v. Centgraf, 82 Kan. 240, 108 P. 83.

99. Temporary possession and deposit of price not part performance. Baldridge v. Centgraf, 82 Kan. 240, 108 P. 83.

100. Memorandum not binding unless it describes the land with certainty. Hampe v. Sage, 82 Kan. 728, 729, 109 P. 406.

101. Oral agreement materially changing written contract is unenforceable. Banister v. Fallis, 85 Kan. 320, 116 P. 822; but see Kitchener v. Jehlik, 85 Kan. 684, 118 P. 1058; Autem v. Coal Co., 98 Kan. 379, 158 P. 13.

102. Performance of services in consideration of devise; renders agreement enforceable. Schoonover v. Schoonover, 86 Kan. 487, 488, 121 P. 485.

103. Land held sufficiently described in memorandum. Hampe v. Sage, 87 Kan. 536, 125 P. 53. Reversed: Sage v. Hampe, 235 U.S. 99, 35 S. Ct, 94, 59 L. Ed. 147.

104. Execution of contract by parol compromise does not affect validity. Welch v. McIntosh, 89 Kan. 47, 130 P. 641.

105. Payment of price and possession constitute part performance. Witt v. Boothe, 98 Kan. 554, 158 P. 851.

106. Written offer, accepted by parol, must be definite and complete. Corley v. Ehlers, 99 Kan. 748, 163 P. 140.

107. Severable valid part of contract is enforceable. Henshaw v. Smith, 102 Kan. 599, 171 P. 616.

108. Written lease made to one lessee for benefit of several held valid. Goss v. Rothrock, 102 Kan. 272, 274, 169 P. 1161.

109. Promise to leave property to heir not within statute. Stahl v. Stevenson, 102 Kan. 447, 451, 171 P. 1164.

110. Oil and gas lease is contract for sale of incorporeal hereditament. Robinson v. Smalley, 102 Kan. 842, 171 P. 1155; White v. Green, 103 Kan. 405, 409, 173 P. 974.

111. Oral promise to procure wife's signature to lease is actionable. Robinson v. Smalley, 102 Kan. 842, 171 P. 1155.

112. Section not applicable to all contracts involving real estate. Stahl v. Stevenson, 102 Kan. 844, 845, 171 P. 1164.

113. Parol contract for sale of any realty interest is unenforceable. Engelbrecht v. Herrington, 103 Kan. 21, 172 P. 715.

114. Payment of purchase price is not part performance. Engelbrecht v. Herrington, 103 Kan. 21, 172 P. 715.

115. Statute is not available to third parties notprivies. Vaught v. Pettyjohn & Co., 104 Kan. 174, 178 P. 623.

116. Oral contracts are not inherently illegal, but unenforceable. Vaught v. Pettyjohn & Co., 104 Kan. 174, 178 P. 623.

117. One repudiating oral contract is not estopped to invoke statute. Pessemier v. Genn, 104 Kan. 287, 178 P. 426.

118. Partnership in leases need not be in writing. Bird v. Wilcox, 104 Kan. 799, 180 P. 774.

119. Part delivery does not render indivisible oral contract binding. Dunn v. Winans, 106 Kan. 80, 186 P. 748.

120. Vendee under unenforceable oral contract may recover for improvements. Dunn v. Winans, 106 Kan. 80, 186 P. 748.

121. Contract for exchange of real property held binding. White v. Immenschuh, 106 Kan. 333, 187 P. 667.

122. Such contract is not voidable for known dual authority of agent. White v. Immenschuh. 106 Kan. 333, 187 P. 667.

123. Sufficiency of possession under doctrine of part performance considered. Kuhn v. Kuhn, 107 Kan. 391, 393, 191 P. 487.

124. Minutes of school board held sufficient memorandum of contract. Whitlow v. Board of Education, 108 Kan. 604, 608, 196 P. 772.

125. Writing required to change equitable mortgage to deed of grant. Brinkerhoff v. Bank, 109 Kan. 700, 205 P. 779.

126. Agent's oral lease for year to begin in future void as to principal. Lane v. Ozias, 114 Kan. 46, 48, 217 P. 331.

127. Executed oral contract to care for parents in consideration of land is enforceable. Lyons v. Lyons, 114 Kan. 514, 220 P. 294.

128. Payment of price and taking possession sufficient to take oral agreement without statute. Hoppas v. Bremer, 114 Kan. 609, 220 P. 251.

129. Equity will allow reformation and enforcement of contract for fraud or mistake. Hickman v. Cave, 115 Kan. 701, 224 P. 57.

130. Section applied to contract made in foreign state where land situated. Lemen v. Sidener, 116 Kan. 7, 225 P. 1048.

131. Agent's authority to bind principal must be in writing. Yates v. Sugar and Land Co., 117 Kan. 405, 412, 231 P. 1034.

132. Violation of oral agreement charging land with debt created equitable mortgage. Farmers State Bank v. St. Aubyn, 120 Kan. 66, 242 P. 466.

133. Statute applies to defendant seeking to enforce oral contract. Spaulding v. Dague, 120 Kan. 510, 243 P. 1045.

134. Oral agreement to hold land in trust unenforceable; subsequent writing immaterial. Quinton v. Kendall, 122 Kan. 814, 821, 253 P. 600.

135. Express trust arising from sale of land must be in writing. Mick v. Butler, 123 Kan. 566, 568, 256 P. 158.

136. Growing crops may be reserved by parol. Soeken v. Hartwig, 124 Kan. 618, 261 P. 590.

137. Correspondence not sufficiently definite as to land. Nichols v. Coppock, 124 Kan. 652, 654, 261 P. 574.

138. Time elapsing between oral agreement and written memorandum thereof is immaterial. Falk v. Fulton, 124 Kan. 745, 262 P. 1025.

139. Execution and delivery of will to other party sufficient to take oral agreement without statute. Falk v. Fulton, 124 Kan. 745, 748, 262 P. 1025.

140. Parol agreement for construction and maintenance of drains, acquiesced in, valid. Bailey v. Brown, 125 Kan. 149, 264 P. 35.

141. Sufficiency of part performance to take oral contract without statute considered. Bowen v. Galloway, 125 Kan. 568, 573, 264 P. 1038.

142. Oral gift of land; nature and sufficiency of proof. Rayl v. Central Trust Co., 127 Kan. 131, 272 P. 147.

143. Statute no defense to equitable estoppel for failure to disclose title. Keeling v. Brooks, 128 Kan. 55, 58, 275 P. 1077.

144. Cited in determining undisclosed principal not liable on covenants of warranty deed. Ladwig v. Dean, 129 Kan. 636, 640, 284 P. 369.

145. Oral agreement to convey land as compensation for services within statute. Roberts v. Roberts, 130 Kan. 85, 90, 92, 285 P. 584.

146. Parol agreement to convey interest in mineral lease within statute. Gates v. Syndicate Oil Corp., 132 Kan. 272, 278, 295 P. 649.

147. Oral agreement to assume encumbrance, after grantor executed deed, enforceable. State Bank v. Gonder, 132 Kan. 636, 296 P. 338.

148. Performance by one part not compensable in moneys removes bar of statute. Craig v. Sanders, 133 Kan. 97, 99, 298 P. 792.

149. Oral agreement to take land for notes barred by statute. Brown v. Pryor, 133 Kan. 129, 298 P. 747.

150. Unauthorized contract for sale of land held not ratified. Graber v. Dreiling, 133 Kan. 205, 207, 299 P. 968.

151. Oral modification of written contract does not bring it within statute. Conner v. Shoemaker, 134 Kan. 605, 7 P.2d 500.

152. Cited in holding oral agreement indefinite and unenforceable. Woltz v. First Trust Co., 135 Kan. 253, 261, 9 P.2d 665.

153. Section applies to contract for sale of real estate where resort must be had to oral contract. Jay v. Ellis, 135 Kan. 272, 274, 10 P.2d 840.

154. In absence of writing, improvement to real estate becomes a part of it. Blankenship v. School District, 136 Kan. 313, 316, 15 P.2d 438.

155. Inapplicable to executed contracts, nor usually available to persons not parties. Haas v. Nemeth, 139 Kan. 252, 254, 31 P.2d 6.

156. Writings considered and held sufficient as no particular form is essential. Steele v. Nelson, 139 Kan. 559, 562, 32 P.2d 253.

157. Agreement rescinding executory contract for sale of lands not within statute. Strickland v. Woods Brothers Ind. Corp., 141 Kan. 114, 117, 40 P.2d 367.

158. Proof of subsequent oral agreements admissible if written obligation not impaired. Blankenship v. Porter, 142 Kan. 284, 289, 47 P.2d 72.

159. Part performance held to validate agreement to convey land; specific performance. Schuler v. Rehberg, 145 Kan. 176, 179, 64 P.2d 571.

160. Partition agreement evidenced by letters and appraisement held good. Brown v. Brown, 146 Kan. 7, 13, 68 P.2d 1105.

161. Performance of services in consideration of devise; agreement enforceable. McEnulty v. McEnulty, 146 Kan. 198, 201, 69 P.2d 1105.

162. Oil lease transaction held joint adventure and statute inapplicable. Shoemaker v. Davis, 146 Kan. 909, 911, 914, 73 P.2d 1043.

163. Ordinary demand note held insufficient to create lien on real estate. Cassity v. Cassity, 147 Kan. 411, 415, 76 P.2d 862.

164. Agreements of joint adventurers not required to be in writing. Flitch v. Boyle, 147 Kan. 600, 78 P.2d 9.

165. Contract and notation on check held to sufficiently describe property sold. Nauman v. Powers, 147 Kan. 641, 643, 78 P.2d 27.

166. Cited in action to impress constructive trust on ground of fraud. Herthel v. Barth, 148 Kan. 308, 310, 81 P.2d 19.

167. Agent with oral authority leased land; tenant may recover on quantum meruit for labor performed. Nelson v. Street, 148 Kan. 587, 588, 589, 590, 83 P.2d 793.

168. Parol agreement to transfer oil when produced held valid. McCrae v. Bradley Oil Co., 148 Kan. 911, 912, 913, 915, 918, 84 P.2d 866.

169. Mentioned but not applied in discussing oral contract to convey. Levi v. Levi, 149 Kan. 234, 238, 86 P.2d 473.

170. Oral agreement to devise and bequeath property fully performed by promises; enforceable. Paton v. Paton, 152 Kan. 351, 355, 103 P.2d 826.

171. Agreement to make joint will; performance by one party; agreement enforceable. West v. Sims, 153 Kan. 248, 252, 109 P.2d 479.

172. Oral contract to make will disposing of land and personalty within statute. Wolf v. Rich, 154 Kan. 636, 637, 121 P.2d 270.

173. Building restrictions not within statute; enforcement by co-owners of tract. Reeves v. Morris, 155 Kan. 231, 236, 124 P.2d 488.

174. Oral contract creating interests in land within statute. Mueller v. Seiler, 158 Kan. 440, 443, 148 P.2d 266.

175. Facts necessary to take contract out of statute discussed. McCracken v. Wright, 159 Kan. 615, 624, 625, 626, 627, 157 P.2d 814.

176. Oil and gas lease and supplemental agreement modifying lease both within statute; unsigned writing unenforceable not made enforceable by reference to signed writing. Riffel v. Dieter, 159 Kan. 628, 634, 637, 638, 639, 641, 157 P.2d 831.

177. Water part of land; grant of use thereof within statute. Arensman v. Kitch, 160 Kan. 783, 791, 165 P.2d 441.

178. Possession not taken under contract; contract within statute; definiteness of contract. Peterson v. Hagaman, 162 Kan. 222, 225, 175 P.2d 118.

179. Deed and contract to convey construed together; wife not necessary party to contract. Clark v. Axley, 162 Kan. 339, 342, 343, 176 P.2d 256.

180. Memorandum and check held sufficient compliance with statute. Vining v. Ledgerwood, 162 Kan. 380, 382, 383, 176 P.2d 560.

181. Wife not signing lease held estopped under facts to deny lease. Rogers v. Dumas, 166 Kan. 519, 522, 523, 203 P.2d 165.

182. Part performance validated oral agreement to convey. Eastwood v. Eastwood, 167 Kan. 471, 474, 475, 476, 207 P.2d 393.

183. Performance by beneficiary of oral contract to convey; statute inapplicable. In re Estate of Spark, 168 Kan. 270, 278, 212 P.2d 369.

184. Parol contract for growing of alfalfa partly performed not void. Stuber v. Sowder, 168 Kan. 467, 469, 470, 213 P.2d 989.

185. Oral contract with real estate agent to purchase land not within statute. Oetken v. Shell, 168 Kan. 244, 250, 251, 212 P.2d 329. Affirmed: 169 Kan. 109, 217 P.2d 906.

186. Purpose of statute; oral agreement for oil lease held enforceable; estoppel. Texas Co. v. Sloan, 171 Kan. 182, 187, 189, 231 P.2d 255.

187. Contract signed by party charged; not signed by all suing parties; statute satisfied. Sewell v. Dolby, 171 Kan. 640, 644, 645, 646, 237 P.2d 366.

188. Check with notations thereon constituted sufficient memorandum under statute. Clark v. Larkin, 172 Kan. 284, 286, 239 P.2d 970.

189. Statute not permitted to be used to perpetrate a fraud. Harrington v. Harrington, 172 Kan. 549, 552, 241 P.2d 513.

190. Oral agreement to devise land in consideration of services; fully performed; enforceable. In re Estate of Hilliard, 172 Kan. 552, 555, 241 P.2d 729.

191. Executed oral contract to work for brother in consideration of land is enforceable. In re Estate of Boller, 173 Kan. 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 244 P.2d 678.

192. Parol agreement on boundary line followed by possession not obnoxious to section. In re Moore, 173 Kan. 820, 252 P.2d 875.

193. Subsequent performance after parol agreement to convey land removes agreement from statute. Eikmeier v. Eikmeier, 174 Kan. 71, 77, 78, 254 P.2d 236.

194. Conveyance made in consideration of care and support not subject to statute. Chapman v. Warmbrodt, 175 Kan. 125, 126, 259 P.2d 158.

195. Part payment and possession; oral agreement enforceable against seller. Murphy v. Cole, 175 Kan. 822, 823, 267 P.2d 959.

196. Agreements between coadventurers dealing in oil and gas leases; statute inapplicable. Potucek v. Blair, 176 Kan. 263, 270 P.2d 240.

197. Mentioned but not applied; contract permitting profit by trustee void and unenforceable. Murray v. Brown, 177 Kan. 139, 140, 276 P.2d 344.

198. Oral contract for distribution of estate; real estate; damage action for nonperformance maintainable. McCurtain v. Hinson, 185 Kan. 301, 304, 305, 341 P.2d 1014.

199. Inapplicable to equitable mortgage. Hill v. Hill, 185 Kan. 389, 397, 398, 345 P.2d 1015.

200. Two agreements held separate, one for sale of land, other for damages, latter enforceable. Nauman v. Kenosha Auto Transport Co., 186 Kan. 305, 309, 349 P.2d 931.

201. Contract to not disinherit daughter not within statute. In re Estate of Shirk, 186 Kan. 311, 312, 319, 327, 350 P.2d 1.

202. Oral contract to reinstate void lease is unenforceable. Daniel v. Leben, 188 Kan. 344, 348, 349, 350, 362 P.2d 634.

203. Oral contract creating life estate valid; contract could have been performed in one year. Ortmann v. Kraemer, 190 Kan. 716, 718, 378 P.2d 26.

204. Oral contract to devise real property to third party beneficiaries collateral to written divorce property settlement held enforceable; part performance. In re Estate of Goff, 191 Kan. 17, 23, 28, 32, 35, 379 P.2d 225.

205. Statute no defense where enforcement thereof would perpetrate fraud; buyers of homesites relied on developer's plat showing land would be dedicated for park purposes. Somerset Acres v. Daniels, 191 Kan. 583, 584, 585, 383 P.2d 952.

206. Contracts for execution of mineral leases within statute. Ladd v. Foster Inv. Co., 40 F.2d 497.

207. Oral agreement modifying contract for lease of lands invalid. Ladd v. Foster Inv. Co., 40 F.2d 497, 500.

208. Signature by one party binds him; memorandum may consist of several writings, when. Rowan v. Harburney Oil Co., 91 F.2d 122, 125.

209. Oral agreement to sell oil lease is unenforceable. Zeligson v. Hartman-Blair, Inc., 126 F.2d 595, 597.

210. Oral agreement for sale of land unenforceable unless removed from statute by partial performance. Evans v. Lynch, 200 Kan. 331, 333, 436 P.2d 867.

D. Agreements not to be performed within one year (215 to 264):

215. Oral contract concerning personalty not performable within year is unenforceable. Thisler v. Mackey, 5 Kan. App. 217, 47 P. 175.

216. Contract to marry beyond one year is unenforceable. Nichols v. Weaver, 7 Kan. 373.

217. Defendant may plead statute in action for breach of contract. Larimer v. Kelley, 10 Kan. 298, 305, 312.

218. Contract hereunder may be sufficient consideration for another contract. Stout v. Ennis, 28 Kan. 706.

219. Oral agreement to pay "as soon as it can be earned." Sutphen v. Sutphen, 30 Kan. 510, 2 P. 100.

220. Contract of employment held not within statute. Sugar Co. v. Taylor, 37 Kan. 435, 15 P. 586.

221. Parol executed promise of pass for life in exchange for land. A.T.&S.F. Rld. Co. v. English, 38 Kan. 110, 117, 16 P. 82.

222. Section applies to executory contracts; inapplicable to executed contracts. A.T.&S.F. Rld. Co. v. English, 38 Kan. 110, 117, 16 P. 82.

223. Oral contract of hire unenforceable; action on quantum meruit proper. Wonsettler v. Lee, 40 Kan. 367, 19 P. 862.

224. Part performance does not take agreement out of statute. Osborne v. Kimball, 41 Kan. 187, 21 P. 163.

225. Oral agreement for services performable within year is valid. Aiken v. Nogle, 47 Kan. 96, 27 P. 825.

226. Executed parol agreement is binding. Aiken v. Nogle, 47 Kan. 96, 27 P. 825.

227. Clause is inapplicable to resulting trusts. Rayl v. Rayl, 58 Kan. 585, 588, 50 P. 501.

228. Marriage promise, indefinite as to time is not within section. MacElree v. Wolfersberger, 59 Kan. 105, 52 P. 69.

229. Oral agreement performable within year is valid. Johnston v. Bowersock, 62 Kan. 148, 155, 61 P. 740.

230. Executed contract of employment for years is binding. Heery v. Reed, 80 Kan. 380, 384, 102 P. 846.

231. Executed oral contract for services is binding. Longhofer v. Herbel, 83 Kan. 278, 111 P. 483.

232. Law implies agreement to pay for services under unenforceable contract. Longhofer v. Herbel, 83 Kan. 278, 111 P. 483.

233. Agreement to employ one for life is not within statute. Pierson v. Milling Co., 91 Kan. 775, 778, 139 P. 394.

234. Oral agreement to lease land for year from future date unenforceable. Lane v. Ozias, 114 Kan. 46, 217 P. 331.

235. Agreement for payments to telephone company over period of years within statute. Andrews v. Richards, 116 Kan. 344, 226 P. 793.

236. Statute must be raised in trial court. Brown v. Byers, 118 Kan. 503, 504, 235 P. 866.

237. Parol employment contract for year, to begin at future date, unenforceable. Newbanks v. Ash Grove L.& P.C. Co., 127 Kan. 89, 272 P. 112.

238. Existence of writing is question of fact; jury's finding conclusive. Lewis v. Hunter, 141 Kan. 206, 40 P.2d 344.

239. Oral employment contract held within statute and unenforceable. Heine v. First Trust Co., 141 Kan. 370, 376, 41 P.2d 767.

240. Proof of subsequent oral agreements admissible if written obligation not impaired. Blankinship v. Porter, 142 Kan. 284, 289, 47 P.2d 72.

241. Performance of services in consideration of devise; agreement enforceable. McEnulty v. McEnulty, 146 Kan. 198, 201, 69 P.2d 1105.

242. Agreement not disclosing it cannot be performed within year not invalid. Cassity v. Cassity, 147 Kan. 411, 415, 76 P.2d 862.

243. Oral lease unenforceable; tenant may recover on quantum meruit for labor performed. Nelson v. Street, 148 Kan. 587, 588, 589, 590, 83 P.2d 793.

244. Complete performance by one party makes contract enforceable. Richard v. Kilborn, 150 Kan. 579, 583, 95 P.2d 545.

245. Oral agreement capable of being performed within one year is valid. Bundy v. Liberty Life Ins. Co., 150 Kan. 658, 663, 95 P.2d 550.

246. Oral agreement to devise and bequeath property fully performed by promises; enforceable. Paton v. Paton, 152 Kan. 351, 355, 103 P.2d 826.

247. Inapplicable to executed contracts; extension of note by interest payment. Andregg v. Sparrow, 152 Kan. 744, 748, 107 P.2d 739.

248. Parol agreement permitting occupancy of real estate during life enforceable. Cannon v. Harris, 161 Kan. 225, 227, 166 P.2d 998.

249. Executed oral contract for personal services is binding and enforceable. Kinser v. Bennett, 163 Kan. 725, 728, 186 P.2d 284.

250. Oral contract to convey capable of performance within one year valid. Eastwood v. Eastwood, 167 Kan. 471, 474, 475, 476, 207 P.2d 393.

251. Oral agreement to make written contract for sale of patent right enforceable. Hazen v. Garey, 168 Kan. 349, 358, 359, 360, 212 P.2d 288.

252. Statute is to prevent fraud not encourage it; equitable estoppel. Hazen v. Garey, 168 Kan. 349, 358, 359, 360, 212 P.2d 288.

253. Parol contract for growing of alfalfa partly performed not void. Stuber v. Sowder, 168 Kan. 467, 469, 470, 213 P.2d 989.

254. Parol agreement not to contest will; performance makes statute inapplicable. Adams v. Reed, 168 Kan. 575, 578, 215 P.2d 194.

255. Partnership agreement within statute and unenforceable; dissolution of partnership and accounting. Powell v. McChesney, 170 Kan. 692, 693, 228 P.2d 925.

256. Contract of hire having no definite termination not within statute. Talbott v. Gaty, 171 Kan. 136, 141, 231 P.2d 202.

257. Contracts performable within one year not within statute; oil drilling. Talbott v. Gaty, 171 Kan. 141, 145, 146, 231 P.2d 205.

258. Purpose of statute; oral agreement for oil lease held enforceable; estoppel. Texas Co. v. Sloan, 171 Kan. 182, 187, 189, 231 P.2d 255.

259. Promissory note constituting a unilateral contract; section inapplicable. Demaras v. Smith, 176 Kan. 416, 419, 420, 421, 422, 271 P.2d 764.

260. Parol employment contract for one year, to begin at future date, unenforceable; part performance. Manning v. Woods, 187 Kan. 418, 419, 422, 357 P.2d 757.

261. Oral contract creating life estate valid; contract could have been performed in one year. Ortmann v. Kraemer, 190 Kan. 716, 718, 378 P.2d 26.

262. Written contract not signed by defendant; defendant made a payment under contract; contract held valid. Cain v. Grosshans & Petersen, Inc., 192 Kan. 474, 479, 389 P.2d 839.

263. Full performance of alleged oral contract or oral contract which might be performed within one year not prohibited. King v. Robbins, 193 Kan. 70, 73, 74, 392 P.2d 154.

264. Provisions herein relative to oral contracts inapplicable where such contract might have been performed within one year. In re Estate of Hargreaves, 201 Kan. 57, 58, 61, 62, 439 P.2d 378.

E. Memorandum or note of agreement (266 to 314):

266. Statute governs execution of antenuptial contract. Brown v. Weld, Administrator, 5 Kan. App. 341, 48 P. 456.

267. Usual endorsement of note is sufficient writing. Fuller v. Scott, 8 Kan. 25.

268. Acceptance of deed containing assumption of indebtedness binds grantee therewith. Schmucker v. Sibert, 18 Kan. 104.

269. Memorandum must state contract with reasonable certainty. Reid v. Kenworthy, 25 Kan. 701; Ross v. Allen, 45 Kan. 231, 243, 25 P. 570.

270. Receipt for purchase price of land held insufficient memorandum. Fry v. Platt, 32 Kan. 62, 3 P. 781.

271. Under statute of 1868 authority of agent need not be in writing. Rose v. Hayden, 35 Kan. 106, 10 P. 554.

272. Contracts may be shown by correspondence. Hollis v. Burgess, 37 Kan. 487, 15 P. 536; Miller v. Railroad Co., 58 Kan. 189, 48 P. 853; Van Doren v. Cement Co., 92 Kan. 470, 474, 141 P. 560.

273. Letter of instructions to agent does not show contract. Brant v. Johnson, 46 Kan. 389, 26 P. 735.

274. Memorandum does not bind vendee who does not sign it. Guthrie v. Anderson, 47 Kan. 383, 28 P. 164.

275. Letter to third person describing land and admitting payment, sufficient. Miller v. Railroad Co., 58 Kan. 189, 48 P. 853.

276. Memorandum of agreement to devise realty held sufficient. Newton v. Lyon, 62 Kan. 306, 310, 62 P. 1000.

277. Memorandum of sale must identify land. Hartshorn v. Smart, 67 Kan. 543, 73 P. 73.

278. Parol authority prior to 1905 may be exercised thereafter. Brown v. Gilpin, 75 Kan. 773, 90 P. 267.

279. Under amendment of 1905 agent must have written authority. Adams v. Carlton, 77 Kan. 546, 548, 95 P. 390; Artz v. McCarthy, 109 Kan. 355, 359, 199 P. 99.

280. Memorandum must identify land. Hampe v. Sage, 82 Kan. 728, 109 P. 406.

281. Signature of one partner as lessee binds firm. Macks v. Chumos, 82 Kan. 562, 109 P. 397.

282. Signature by one party binds him. Wiley v. Hellen, 83 Kan. 544, 112 P. 158.

283. Want of mutuality because plaintiff did not sign no defense. Wiley v. Hellen, 83 Kan. 544, 112 P. 158.

284. Executed oral contract concerning real estate business held enforceable. Edwards v. Brinkerhoff, 85 Kan. 67, 71, 116 P. 222.

285. Deed placed in escrow is sufficient memorandum. Readicker v. Denning, 86 Kan. 617, 122 P. 103 (Reversed: Readicker v. Denning, 87 Kan. 523, 125 P. 29); Neal v. Owings, 108 Kan. 73, 194 P. 324.

286. Surrender of a written lease may be made by parol. Rogers v. Dockstader, 90 Kan. 189, 192, 133 P. 717. Criticized: Guy v. Gould, 126 Kan. 25, 26, 266 P. 925.

287. Contract may be proved by separate writings. Van Doren v. Cement Co., 92 Kan. 470, 474, 141 P. 560.

288. Contract may be embraced in letters and writings. Van Doren v. Cement Co., 92 Kan. 470, 474, 141 P. 560.

289. Contract may be shown by separate writings. Arnett v. Wescott, 107 Kan. 693, 193 P. 377.

290. Memorandum must identify parties charged. Banta v. Newbold, 108 Kan. 578, 579, 196 P. 433.

291. Minutes of school board authorizing deed held sufficient memorandum. Whitlow v. Board of Education, 108 Kan. 604, 196 P. 772.

292. Contract must be signed by party sought to be charged. Sealock v. Auto Company, 110 Kan. 302, 303, 203 P. 728; Hart v. Corcoran, 112 Kan. 21, 209 P. 984.

293. Contract, its terms and conditions, must be definite; writing held insufficient. Wing v. Mollett, 115 Kan. 116, 222 P. 88.

294. Memorandum and letter sufficient; specific performance of contract to purchase mineral lease. Foley v. Schmidt, 115 Kan. 621, 625, 224 P. 489, 491.

295. Resolution of corporation directors and notes held sufficient writing. Farmers Co-operative Union v. Reynolds, 127 Kan. 16, 19, 272 P. 108.

296. Assignee of building contract not liable for debts prior to assignment. Hargreaves v. Maryland Casualty Co., 130 Kan. 388, 389, 286 P. 231.

297. Section applies to contract for sale of real estate where resort must be had to oral contract. Jay v. Ellis, 135 Kan. 272, 274, 10 P.2d 840.

298. Writings considered and held sufficient as no particular form is essential. Steele v. Nelson, 139 Kan. 559, 562, 32 P.2d 253.

299. Partition agreement between brothers evidenced by letters signed "brother," held good. Brown v. Brown, 146 Kan. 7, 13, 68 P.2d 1105.

300. Ordinary promissory note held insufficient to create lien on land. Cassity v. Cassity, 147 Kan. 411, 415, 76 P.2d 862.

301. Memorandum on three papers; signature on one sufficient, when; land sufficiently described. Nauman v. Powers, 147 Kan. 641, 643, 78 P.2d 27.

302. Unsigned writing unenforceable not made enforceable by reference to signed writing; payment alone not sufficient to constitute performance avoiding statute. Riffel v. Dieter, 159 Kan. 628, 634, 637, 638, 639, 641, 157 P.2d 831.

303. Instrument, deed in form, may be shown mortgage by parol testimony. Jones v. Jones, 161 Kan. 284, 287, 291, 293, 167 P.2d 634.

304. Party accepting benefits of contract signed by unauthorized agent; statute unavailable. Hough v. Munford, 160 Kan. 572, 580, 164 P.2d 92.

305. Memorandum and check sufficient compliance with statute; sale of land. Vining v. Ledgerwood, 162 Kan. 380, 382, 383, 176 P.2d 560.

306. Payee named in promissory note is not "party to be charged therewith." Demaras v. Smith, 176 Kan. 416, 420, 421, 422, 271 P.2d 764.

307. Separate writings, construed together held sufficient to establish postnuptial agreement. In re Estate of Bradley, 179 Kan. 539, 542, 297 P.2d 180.

308. Requisites of memorandum stated. Hurley v. Painter, 180 Kan. 552, 553, 557, 558, 306 P.2d 184.

309. Memorandum need not be in single writing; may be aided by correspondence. Ladd v. Foster Inv. Co., 40 F.2d 497.

310. Signature by one party binds him; memorandum may consist of several writings, when. Rowan v. Harburney Oil Co., 91 F.2d 122, 125.

311. A deed absolute in form but in fact an equitable mortgage is not governed by the statute of frauds. Duncan v. Essary, 193 Kan. 241, 245, 392 P.2d 877.

312. Alleged unsigned five-year contract for employment within statute. Frey v. Frankel, 361 F.2d 437, 439, 442.

313. To be sufficient as a note or memorandum hereunder, a writing must leave nothing to rest in parol. Walton v. Piqua State Bank, 204 Kan. 741, 742, 744, 466 P.2d 316.

314. Guaranty of payment not specifying terms or amount of liability lacked essentials of note or memorandum hereunder. Kutilek v. Union National Bank of Wichita, 213 Kan. 407, 408, 410, 411, 516 P.2d 979.

(Following cases not further classified).

315. Promise to a debtor to answer for debts of another not within statute. Farmers State Bank of Ingalls v. Conrardy, 215 Kan. 334, 341, 524 P.2d 690.

316. Statute does not bar recovery where performance under contract by one party and agreement performable within one year. Harold v. Harold, 218 Kan. 284, 286, 543 P.2d 1019.

317. Statute did not bar recovery if contract performable within one year is performed by one party. Harold v. Harold, 218 Kan. 284, 286, 543 P.2d 1019.

318. Terms of informal agreement to purchase land not fully agreed upon; contract not enforceable. King v. Wenger, 219 Kan. 668, 673, 549 P.2d 986.

319. Failure to raise defense hereunder as required by K.S.A. 60-208; not considered on appeal. Time v. Prescott State Bank, 220 Kan. 377, 386, 553 P.2d 315.

320. Evidence supported finding of no binding contract; specific performance denied. Steele v. Harrison, 220 Kan. 422, 427, 552 P.2d 957.

321. Contract may be enforced even though noncompliance with section where position changed so that injustice can be avoided only by specific performance. Walker v. Ireton, 221 Kan. 314, 318, 319, 559 P.2d 340.

322. Under terms of contract, employment could be performed within one year; not within ambit of section. Mildfelt v. Lair, 221 Kan. 557, 563, 561 P.2d 805.

323. Section construed; oral modification of contract extending time for performance held to be substantial; within statute of frauds. Reno v. Beckett, 555 F.2d 757, 763.

324. Statute had no application to oral agreement to sell real estate; principal and agent. Marcotte Realty & Auction, Inc. v. Schumacher, 225 Kan. 193, 195, 589 P.2d 570.

325. Action on memorandum of agreement for lease of building barred by statute; memorandum insufficient. Progress Enterprises, Inc. v. The Litwin Corporation, 225 Kan. 212, 214, 589 P.2d 583.

326. Statute does not apply to resulting trust created by operation of law; partnership property. Stauth v. Stauth, 2 Kan. App. 2d 512, 516, 582 P.2d 1160.

327. Oral notice of election to exercise an option for renewal of a written lease held valid. Continental Builders, Inc. v. Leach, 5 Kan. App. 2d 766, 767, 625 P.2d 5 (1981).

328. Assignment of possible proceeds due from pending lawsuit valid; suit could be settled within one year period. Carson v. Chevron Chemical Co., 6 Kan. App. 2d 776, 791, 635 P.2d 1248 (1981).

329. One-year provision applies only to contracts that could not possibly be completed within a year. Augusta Bank & Trust v. Broomfield, 231 Kan. 52, 54, 58, 59, 60, 643 P.2d 100 (1982).

330. Contract in writing must leave nothing in parol nor any material matter for agreement or negotiation. Kansas Power & Light v. Burlington Northern R. Co., 544 F. Supp. 1336, 1349 (1982).

331. More than one document may be in question; all to be construed in their entirety (with question on rule against perpetuities). Barnhart v. McKinney, 235 Kan. 511, 524, 682 P.2d 112 (1984).

332. Subsequent destruction of signed contract and failure of delivery irrelevant to whether statute of frauds satisfied. Reed v. Hess, 239 Kan. 46, 50, 716 P.2d 555 (1986).

333. Compliance with and duration of contract ascertained from numerous writings between parties; statute interpreted. Kansas Power & Light Co. v. Burlinton Northern, 740 F.2d 780, 790 (1984).

334. Bank's agreement to disburse funds from sale in certain way not agreement "to answer for the debt . . . of another." Becker v. Buman, 239 Kan. 342, 348, 721 P.2d 246 (1986).

335. Real property sold with oral agreement restricting building size; statute not excluded as defense by equity. Cooper v. RE-MAX Wyandotte County Real Estate, Inc., 241 Kan. 281, 289, 291, 736 P.2d 900 (1987).

336. Cited; where lease is within statute, operating agreement containing agreement to execute lease is also within statute. Dickinson, Inc. v. Balcor Income Properties Ltd., 12 Kan. App. 2d 395, 398, 745 P.2d 1120 (1987).

337. Confidential settlement of suit as not within Kansas' statute of frauds determined. Tomson v. Stephan, 696 F. Supp. 1407, 1408 (D. Kan. 1988).

338. Statute of frauds examined where oral contract for personal services performed by one party who has not received payment. Nutt v. Knutson, 13 Kan. App. 2d 169, 171, 766 P.2d 823 (1989).

339. Contracts of uncertain duration excluded from statute; provision covers contracts the performance of which cannot possibly be completed within a year. Nutt v. Knutson, 245 Kan. 162, 164, 776 P.2d 475 (1989).

340. Equitable consideration that may remove statute's application examined. Bank of Alton v. Tanaka, 247 Kan. 443, 451, 799 P.2d 1029 (1990).

341. Handprinted name of corporation's officer did not operate as officer's signature under act. Airlines Reporting v. Travel Serv. Clearinghouse, 778 F. Supp. 1141 (1991).

342. Section does not restrict insurable interest in real property to interests enforceable under statute of frauds. Morgan v. Patrons Mut. Ins. Ass'n, 813 F. Supp. 1502, 1503 (1993).

343. Defendants could not prove existence and content of allegedly signed note solely by parol evidence. F.D.I.C. v. Ellis, 968 F. Supp. 1441, 1442, 1445 (1997).

344. Alleged agreements not capable of completion in a year were unenforceable where signed by unauthorized agents. MCI Tele. Corp. v. Value Call Intern., Inc., 988 F. Supp. 1376, 1383 (1997).

345. Kansas statute of frauds no bar to enforcement of contract claim of minority subcontractor. Edwards & Associates, Inc. v. Black & Veach, 84 F. Supp. 2d 1182, 1201 (2000).

346. Covenant not to compete which violates statute of frauds effective based on promissory estoppel. State ex rel. Graves v. U.S., 86 F. Supp. 2d 1094, 1107 (2000).

347. Near end of twelve-month lease, students sign lease for subsequent twelve-month period but give written notice of cancellation before start of subsequent period and before acceptance by landlord: Held, not an enforceable oral agreement; tenants had right to cancel. Tang v. Loveland 27 Kan. App. 2d 185, 1 P.3d 922 (2000).

348. Alleged enforceable employment contract provided no basis for breach of contract action. Land v. Midwest Technology, Inc., 114 F. Supp. 2d 1121, 1148 (2000).

349. For guaranty to be complete under statute of frauds, it must be complete and leave nothing in parol (name of company to be guaranteed not filled in on form when signed by guarantor). Kenby Oil Co. v. Lange, 30 Kan. App. 2d 439, 42 P.3d 201 (2002).

350. Trial court's application of statute of frauds was error working a substantial injustice to appellants. Zukel v. Great West Managers, LLC, 31 Kan. App. 2d 1098, 78 P.3d 480 (2003).

351. State statute of frauds barred enforcement of alleged oral agreements. JDN Development Co., Inc. v. Terra Venture, Inc., 265 F. Supp. 2d 1239, 1252 (2003).

352. Guaranty instruments executed by 32 members of limited liability company do not violate statute of frauds. Botkin v. Security State Bank, 33 Kan. App. 2d 914, 111 P.3d 182 (2005).

353. Acceptance of deed and failure to reject it as improperly filed satisfied statute of frauds. Jeremiah 29:11, Inc. v. Seifert, 36 Kan. App. 2d 19, 27, 136 P.3d 957 (2006).

354. No enforceable agreement to sell real estate where no document signed by owner. Ayalla v. Southridge Presbyterian Church, 37 Kan. App. 2d 312, 318, 152 P.3d 670 (2007).

355. Oral divorce settlement recited in court and acknowledged by parties held to satisfy statute of frauds. In re Marriage of Takusagawa, 38 Kan. App. 2d 401, 408 (2007).

356. Section satisfied by "exclusive right to sell listing agreement," and other auction documents. Young v. Hefton, 38 Kan. App. 2d 846, 856, 173 P.3d 671 (2008).

357. Principles, presumptions and burdens of proof relating to delivery of deeds stated and applied. Johannes v. Idol, 39 Kan. App. 2d 595, 603, 181 P.3d 574 (2008).

358. An equitable mortgage may be recognized even when the written contract is not enforceable. In re Cox, 408 B.R. 407 (2009).

359. Plaintiff's action barred by the statute of frauds, because there is no document signed by defendants. Sigg v. Coltrane, 45 Kan. App. 2d 65, 253 P.3d 781 (2010).

360. Oral contract for sale of insurance deemed not enforceable as agreement could not be performed in less than one year. Ed DeWitte Ins. Agency v. Financial Assocs. Midwest, 53 Kan. App. 2d 238, 388 P.3d 156 (2016).

361. A right of refusal is an interest in land that is subject to the statute of frauds. Trear v. Chamberlain, 53 Kan. App. 2d 385, 388 P.3d 607 (2017), rev. granted (Aug. 30, 2017).

362. When one party to an oral agreement has completed his or her performance, the one-year provision of the statute of frauds does not prevent enforcement of the promises of other parties; the full-performance exception requires only complete performance by one party. Ed DeWitte Ins. Agency, Inc. v. Fin. Assocs. Midwest, Inc., 308 Kan. 1065, 1086, 427 P.3d 25 (2018).


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